Glossary

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A-A: An APA panel rating that refers to a sanded plywood panel with A-grade face and back plies, D grade inner plies and bonded with interior glue.

A-A Exterior grade: An APA panel rating that refers to an exterior grade sanded plywood panel with A-grade pace and back plies and C-grade inner plies. Bonded with exterior glue and commonly used for fences, built ins, signs, boats, cabinets, commercial refrigerators, shipp

A-B: An APA panel rating that refers to a sanded plywood panel with an A-grade face, B-grade back and D- grade inner plies. Can be bonded with interior or exterior glue. Commonly used as a substitute for A-A when the appearance of one side is less important.

A-B Exterior: An APA panel rating that refers to an exterior grade sanded plywood panel with A-grade face, B-grade back, and C-grade inner plies. Bonded with exterior glue. Commonly used as a substitute for A-A exterior where the appearance of one face is less importan

abrasion: The process of wearing down of a surface due to rubbing by course objects that cause small portions of the surface to be removed.

abrasion resistance: The property of a surface that resists being worn away by a rubbing or friction process. Abrasion resistance isn’t necessarily related to hardness, as believed by some, but is more closely comparable to, or can be correlated with the toughness ability of

abrasive: A substance that is very rough and which is used to wear down a surface. Sandpaper is an abrasive.

absorption: The process by which wood takes in water or other liquids such as finishing agents.

A-C exterior: An APA panel rating that refers to an exterior grade of sanded plywood panel with A-grade face, C-grade back, and C-grade inner plies. Bonded with exterior glue. Commonly used for soffits, boxcar and truck linings, and other high moisture applications whe

accelerator: Any substance that speeds up the curing time of an adhesive or the drying time of a finishing agent.

accent strip: A strip of wood flooring used in contrasting color to the rest of the flooring. Often used around the edges of a room or other areas.

acclimation: The act of allowing wood moisture content to become at equilibrium with the environment in which it will perform. Also see EMC.

acetone: The simplest ketone, a highly flammable organic compound, widely used as a solvent.

across the grain: The direction at right angles to the length of the longitudinal elements of wood.

acrylic: This refers to both a finishing agent and a chemical compound that is used in some other finishes.

acrylic lacquers: A high quality clear system for finishing cabinets, furniture and a wide variety of wood and novelty items. They are water white in color with excellent non-yellowing qualities. Available in both solvent type and water reducible products.

activator: The curing agent of a two component/compound adhesive system such as a two part epoxy.

actual size: The true exact measured width or length of a piece of lumber.

A-D: An APA panel rating that refers to a sanded plywood panel with A-grade face, D-grade back and D-grade inner plies. Bonded with interior or exterior glue. Commonly used for paneling, built-ins, shelving, partitions where only one side is important.

additives: Chemicals added to paint/primer to affect performance, prevent mold/mildew or block tannin bleed and stain.

add-on: The dimension that represents the difference between the cabinet opening and the finish door size. Typically ½ to 1” added to the width and length of the cabinet opening, resulting in the door finish size.

adhesion: The property causing one material to stick to another, the strength with which an adhesive acts. The degree of attachment between a finish step and the underlining material .

adhesive: A substance that is capable of bonding two materials together by surface attachment. Types include cement, mucilage, paste, and glues.

adhesive joint: A joint that uses adhesive instead of nails or screws. A location at which two objects are held together with a layer of adhesive Term synonymous with glue-joint.

adsorption: The adhesion of molecules of a liquid or gas to the surface or a solid. This is a weak bond and is generally much weaker and less permanent than absorption.

adult wood: A term synonymous with mature wood.

advanced decay: The latter stage of decay in which destruction is readily recognized by soft, pitted, or crumbly areas, frequently accompanied by obvious discoloration of the wood.

AFA: The abbreviation for the American Forestry Association

air – dried: Dried by exposure to air in a yard or shed without artificial heat. Not kiln dried.

air bubble: A dry bubble in coating film caused by entrapped air. Often caused by applying the finish coat too heavily or due to excessive brushing.

air drying: A finishing material is said to be air drying when it is capable of hardening or curing at ordinary room temperature i.e., 60 to 80 degrees F.

air entrapment: Inclusion of air bubbles in coating film.

airborne contaminants: Foreign substances introduced into the air which can cause film defects.

alcohol: A group of solvents of relatively high evaporation rate but with relatively low solvent strength. Commonly used as a solvent in shellac, some stains, dyes, inks and lacquer.

alkyd: A type of synthetic resin used as the vehicle or modifier in coating, usually to increase such things as hardness, toughness, and flexibility.

all heart: Refers to lumber that is pure heartwood, no sapwood.

alligatoring: The appearance of a paint, varnish or lacquer film that is cracked into large segments, resembling the hide of an alligator. Caused by heavy coats, by recoating before the bottom coat is completely dry, by the use of thinners that evaporate too quickly, o

amber: An orange color found in some resins and varnishes; a yellowish translucent resin formerly used in the manufacture of varnish.

ambient moisture content: The moisture content of wood when it has come to equilibrium with the ambient humidity and temperature. Also called equilibrium moisture content.

ambrosia: The name of a beetle which attacks some woods, particularly maple. The beetles share a symbiotic relationship with the ambrosia fungus. This fungus causes a discoloration found radiating up and down the grain from the holes that the beetle creates as it b

ammonia: A pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen that is used in woodworking in the process of fuming wood.

aniline (acid) dye: Synthetic colors which dissolve in the solvent for which they are formulated. I.e. - water, alcohol, or oil. Aniline dye stains must be specified, and are always applied to the raw wood before sealing in any system.

annual growth rings: The layer of wood growth, including spring and summer wood formed on a tree during a single growing season.

Appalachian: Lumber logged from the region along both sides of the Appalachian range, running thru western Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York.

appearance grade: A grade for wood or composite material (Plywood) that is concerned only with the surface appearance and make no direct statement about structural characteristics. Clear is an appearance grade for lumber.

application: The process by which a finishing agent is put on a surface. Techniques include: brush, dip, pad, pour, roll, spray, wipe.

applicator: A device with which the application of a finishing agent to a surface is accomplished. Ex: brushes, cloth, spray guns, etc.

applied carving: A wood carving worked separately and then applied (glued on) rather than being worked in place.

apron: A rail from one leg to another of a table or chair. The bottom piece of a sill. Wood flooring outside the border Also called frame of skirting.

carbide: A hard, sharp carbon/iron material that can keep a sharp edge for a long time when working on wood. Resists dulling in high speed applications where high temperatures cause loss of temper.

arbor: A rotating shaft driven by a motor and serving as an axis for larger rotating parts such as a blade on a saw or the cutting head on a shaper. A structure designed to be covered in plants to provide shade.

arris: The sharp edge where two surfaces meet at an angle- the corner where the face and an edge of a plank meet.

aspect ratio: The ratio of width to height. It is relevant to woodworking in that the creation of rectangles with identical aspect ratios, albeit different sizes is the goal particularly in artistic creations.

asphalt saturated felt paper A#15: A commonly used as a vapor retarder.

atomization: formation of tiny droplets of liquid in a spraying process. A finish that is properly atomized will produce tiny droplets of mist that will easily coat a surface uniformly. A poorly atomized coating will consist of larger droplets that may not flow out to

back: The poorer quality side of the two wide surfaces of a plank or panel as opposed to the face which is the better quality of the two. The inward- directed wide surface of a plank or panel when in service.

backing board: The board remaining on the faceplate of a veneer slicing machine after the veneer is all sliced off. These are usually thin boards ½ to ¾” thick- also called backer boards.

baking: Drying a coating material by using artificial heat. Baking temperature usually 160 to 500F. Temperature in 110 to 150F usually referred to “forced drying”.

balanced construction: Aconstruction such that the forces induced by uniformly distributed changes in moisture content will not cause warping. Ex: alternating grain direction of plys in plywood created balanced construction.

baluster: A spindle used as part of the support rail of a staircase.

balustrade: The protective barrier alongside a staircase or landing. Composed of spindles (balusters) topped by a banister and connected on each end to a newel .

bandsaw: A saw that uses a continuous loop of flexible steel with teeth that runs on wheels.

bandsawn: Refers to lumber that has been cut by a bandsaw and therefore has straight sawtooth marks perpendicular to the long dimension on the face.

banister: A handrail that runs along the top of the balusters of a staircase and is supported on both ends by newels.

barber pole: An effect in book matching of veneers resulting from tight and loose sides of veneers causing different light reflections when finished.

bark: The outermost protective layer of a tree.

bark pocket: An isolated area in wood, largely made up of bark that has grown into the sapwood of a tree. Can be caused by irregular growth or damage. Also called bark inclusion.

barrier coat: A layer of finishing agent used to isolate layers from each other or from the surface to which they are applied so as to increase adhesion, insure compatibility, or isolate contamination. Also called tie coat.

base: The lowest part of a tree up to 3 feet above ground. The term also refers to baseboards.

base shoe: A moulding designed to be attached to the base moulding to cover the expansion space. Similar to a quarter round in profile.

baseboard: Also called base moulding, skirting or mopboard, the moulding that covers and protects the joint between an interior wall surface and the floor. If the base moulding doesn’t cover the expansion space between the floor and the wall, another piece of mouldi

bastard sawn: Lumber (primarily in hardwoods) in which the annual rings make the angles of 30 to 60 degrees with the surface of the piece. Also called rift sawn.

batch: Industrial unit or quantity of production used in one complete operation.

bead: A semi-circular piece of moulding; a small rounded raised profile.

bead board: Panels that have a series of various shapes or indentations running vertically so that the panel appears to be an installation of individual planks.

bed: Generally means some flat surface that is the base of the operation. The flat part of a moulder that the wood rides on is called the bed.

belt sander: A form of power sander that used a continuous loop of sandpaper.

Bernard (vortex) cell: Hexagon shaped cell that is produced by the vortex action of solvent evaporation in thin films.

bevel: A surface that meets another at an angle other than a right angle, to cut edges or ends at an angle, but not a right angle- see also chamfer.

beveled edge: The chamfered or beveled edge of wood flooring, plank, block & parquet. Other than at a right angle.

Biltmore stick: A yardstick like device used to measure the DBH of a standing tree and also to estimate the lumber yield of a tree. Also called a cruiser stick.

binder: The part of the coating that does not evaporate. It holds the pigment particles together and stays on the surface and forms the film of the finish. This is one of the non-volatile ingredients.

bird peck: A patch of distorted grain and/or coloring resulting from birds pecking living trees, sometimes containing ingrown bark or insect residue.

bird’s eye: Small decorative circular figure, most common in hard maple lumber. Caused by local fiber distortions.

black knot: Synonymous with encased; a knot that is loose and may fall out.

blade: The portion of a tool that contains a cutting edge.

blade guard: The shroud that covers the blade to prevent the operator from accidentally placing his hands in contact with the spinning blade. This device also prevents small pieces from being thrown back out towards the operator.

blank: A piece of wood that has been brought into roughly the size and shape of the finished product.

blanker: See planer or roughing planer.

bleaching: The chemical process used to remove color or whiten solid wood. Can be used to lighten extremely dark wood or whiten a lighter colored wood.

bleeding: When the substance such as natural wood resin permeates and stains the outer surface of a subsequent coating- Tannin bleed; When the color of one coating material migrates up through the finishing layer to the succeeding coat imparting some of its charact

blemish: Anything marring the appearance of lumber.

blistering: Formation of bubbles on the surface of a coating. Caused by trapping air or vapors beneath the surface.

block resistance: The ability of a finishing agent to resist blocking.

blocking: The tendency of a finishing agent to adhere to itself on another freshly coated surface or to other substrates. Causes windows to bind, doors to stick, damage to finished surfaces when contacted before coating fully cures.

bloom: A bluish cast which forms on the surface of some films. Blooming is caused by a deposition of a thin film of foreign material such as smoke, dust or oil or by the exudation of a component of the paint film.

blotch: An area on the surface of the wood that may have adsorbed more of a finishing agent than the surrounding area. Such a surface contrast is usually considered unattractive.

blue stain: Also called sapstain. This is caused by a fungus that eats nutrients primarily found in the sap, so it usually occurs in the sapwood and not the heartwood. The color is the fungus itself rather than a chemically induced change in the color of the sapwood

blunting effect: The degree to which a given species of wood reduces the sharpness of the cutting edge of tools.

blushing: The whitish, cloudlike haze that occurs in fast drying finishes, especially lacquer when sprayed in very humid conditions. Blushing is most often due to moisture (water vapor) trapped in the film or to bits of resin precipitating out of solution. There is

board & batten: A type of exterior siding that has alternating wide boards and narrow wooden strips called battens covering the seams between the boards.

board foot: A unit of volume measurement of lumber represented by a board 1 foot long x 12 inches wide by 1 inch thick or it’s cubic equivalent(144 cubic inches). A board foot is 1/12 of a cubic foot. 1” thick x 12” wide x 12” long. Lumber less than 1” thick is cons

body: The consistency or thickness/viscosity of a finishing agent while still in liquid form.

bole: The trunk of a tree from the ground to the first branch. That portion of a tree that is most useful for producing lumber.

bond: The adhesion of or ability of two items to stick to one another by adhesive, or could refer to a finishing agent ability to stick to a surface.

bond strength: The force required to break the adhesive assembly, with failure occurring in or near the plane of the bond.

book matching: The matching of resawn boards or veneer sheets that mimics the opening of a book. That is you have a board that has been resawn down its length and they are pressed against each other and you leave the bottom edges touching and open the top pair of edges

border: Usually a pattern of floor surrounding a room or at a transition area, outside the field.

bore: The hole for the arbor in a saw blade or cutting tool.

botanical name: The scientific name for a wood. The name consists of a botanical genus, capitalized, followed by a specific epithet, in lower case, and the pair taken together is the name of the species- ex: white oak is called Quercus alb.

boule: The entire log, cut through and through and stacked in the same order that the planks were in the tree.

bounce back: The rebound of an atomized coating, especially when applied by air spray methods. The air pressure used to atomize the coating ounces off the surface being sprayed keeping the material from attaching to the surface and is lost as overspray.

bound water: Also called bound moisture. Water found within the cell wall of wood. Compare/contrast to free water.

bow: A drying defect in which the distortion in a board deviates from flatness down the length of a board (eyebrow); the distortion of lumber in which there is a deviation in a direction perpendicular to the flat face, from a straight line from end to end of t

branch: An extension growing out from the trunk of a tree and containing other branches, twigs and leaves.

brashness: An abnormal condition of wood characterized by low resistance to shock and by abrupt and complete failure across the grain without splintering.- similar to brittleness in other materials. due to extreme growth rate, exposure to high temperatures, or decay

bridging: The ability of finishing material to cover a crack, void or small gap without a break in the film, usually resulting in an air pocket under the dried film.

brittleness: The tendency of a dried paint or clear film to crack or flake when bent or scratched, rather than stretching or bending.

broad leaved: Refers to gymnosperm also known as hardwood trees.

brown stain: A wood stain caused by kiln drying due to oxidization on or just below the surface of the wood. Most likely to occur when fresh, unseasoned lumber is stacked and stored for several days during warm or humid weather prior to kiln drying.- likely when high

bruise: To make a dent in wood by striking it with a hard object such as a hammer.

brush: a group of animal hairs or synthetic fibers bound together and used to apply finishing agents and adhesives to wood surfaces. ; an application technique for putting finishing agents onto wood

brushability: the ease with which a finishing agent can be applied with a brush

bubbling: the appearance of bubbles in the film while the material is being applied. Caused by any condition that causes air, vapors or gasses to be trapped in the film while it is soft but after it has hardened sufficiently to prevent the gas from escaping

buckling: Excessive expansion causing the wood flooring to release from the subfloor. Caused by excessive jobsite moisture (airborne, subfloor or flooding) frequently aggravated by improper installation techniques. May require complete replacement after mitigating

buff: To rub a surface with a polishing device in order to bring it to a bright shiny finish.

build: The wet or dry thickness of a film.

bull nose: the radius applied to the front edge of a step

bundled flooring: consists of flooring pieces that range from 6 In plus or minus the nominal length of the bundle. A run is a single piece of flooring.

burl: A swirl or twist of the grain of the wood that usually occurs near a knot but doesn’t contain a knot.

butt joint: A joint formed by abutting the squared edges of two pieces.

cabinet: A box shaped form, either free standing or as a piece of furniture or built into or attached to a wall.

cabinet face: This is the flat face frame on the front of standard cabinets. The cabinet doors mount onto this frame. On 32mm cabinets, there is no face frame, only the edge of the boxes, which become the cabinet face.

cabinet planer: See planer or roughing planer.

caking: The formation of a cake of varnish or lacquer on the rubbing pad during the rubbing operation. Caused by improperly dried varnish, not enough lubricant, too much pressure on the rubbing pad, inferior pumice, dirt in the varnish surface and similar causes.

calibration: The process of establishing an accurate relationship between a measuring device and the unit it is to measure by comparing the reading of the device to a standard of known high accuracy, and adjusting the device to be within some given tolerance of closen

calico: A wood that has been selected to contain both heartwood and sapwood in the same side of the wood.

calipers: A measuring tool for making accurate inside or outside measurements.

cambium: the growing part of the tree, just underneath the bark, and outside the sapwood. It is the cambium that forms new sapwood on the inner side and new bark on the outside each year. Cambium is several cell layers thick during the growing season and one cell

cant: The square or rectangular portion of the log left after the rounded slab or outside portion of a log is cut off by the sawyer. Used for further production of lumber by resawing, usually at right angles to the widest face.

carbide tip: A piece of sharpened carbide that is brazed to the ends or edges of cutting tools such as the teeth of a saw blade or the edge of a cutting tool.

carcass: The case or box of a piece of furniture which will eventually receive a top, drawers, doors, edging, mouldings etc.

case hardening: A term applied to dry lumber that has residual compressive stresses in the area of the outer zone of the board and tensile stresses in the inner core area. This is typically a drying defect but can also occur due to reaction wood. Can cause planks to bind

casing: The exposed moulding around the inside or outside of a window or door.

cat’s paw: A type of cluster burl where there is an isolated group of small eyes that fall more or less in the shape of a cat’s paw.

catalyst: Chemically an ingredient added to a product to provide additional performance characteristics, such as faster drying, chemical resistance, or increased hardness of the finish. Catalyst itself is not actively involved in, or consumed by the process.

catalyzed lacquer: A modified nitro-cellulose based coating with a catalyst added for enhanced performance.

catalyzed vinyl: A catalyzed coating with a vinyl resin base. Extremely tough and resistant to most chemicals.

cathedral grain: A grain appearance characterized by a series of inverted “V” or “U” shaped patters common in plain-sawn lumber.

cell: The general term for the smallest microscopic structure of plant tissue, including wood fibers.

cell wall: The enclosing membrane of a cell.

cellulose: The structural component of the primary cell wall of all green plants including trees. It is 100% sugar molecules. Wood is normally 50% cellulose, 20% hemi-cellulose, 25% lignin, and 5% gum, resins, and extractives.

center rail(s): Horizontal frame parts placed between the top rail and the bottom rail that connects two styles. Center rails are normally straight and have rail sticking machined top and bottom edges and both ends coped. Center rails are used where there is more than on

center style(s): Vertical frame parts which separate multiple panels and have style sticking machined on both edges.

central: Lumber that is logged from a region that includes eastern Nebraska, eastern Missouri, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.

chair rail: A strip of moulding that is placed horizontally along a wall at about waist height. Original purpose was to protect walls from damage from chair backs, but now is mostly decorative.

chalking: The condition which occurs when a loose powder derived from the film itself, is formed on the surface of a dried film or just beneath the surface. Caused by a disintegration of the binder portion of the film. Can be detected by rubbing the film with a fin

chamfer: A flat surface created by slicing off the edge or corner of a piece of wood- usually at 45 degree angle. Also see bevel.

chamfered: Having the edges where two surfaces meet removed lengthwise at an angle.

character: A loosely defined term meaning having interesting figure.

character marks: Naturally occurring marks in the wood such as burls, flags, and flecks that give a unique appearance.

chatoyancy: The property whereby something reflects light differently depending on the viewing angle. Example would be quartered white oak- the ray flakes look different as you change viewing angles.

chatter: A rapid, usually noisy vibration of a work piece due to interaction with a moving tool, or of the tool edge due to interaction with the work piece. Frequently caused by insufficient hold-down pressure while cutting.

chatter marks: Consistent machining imperfections across the grain of the wood varying from 1/16 “ to 1/4” apart, Caused by machine set up, feed speeds, hold-down pressure- slight, closely spaced indentations causing a ripple effect on the surface of wood.

check: A lengthwise separation of the wood that usually extends across or through the annual growth rings (parallel to the grain) and commonly results from stress set up during air drying or kiln drying, environmental conditions during storage or after installa

checking: Small slits running parallel to grain of wood, caused chiefly by strains produced in seasoning.

chemical fastener: A chemical system, usually an adhesive that is designed to permanently bond the wood flooring to the subfloor.

chemical resistance: The ability of a finishing agent to resist damage from chemicals such as solvents, adhesives, and everyday spills from coffee, soft drinks etc.

chemical stain: A chemical discoloration of wood that is believed to be caused by the concentration and modification of extractives. This may occur as part of the tree growth or may occur as a drying defect in kiln drying due to heat of drying process.

chip: A small portion of solid material removed by mechanical action. Example: wood chips created by moulder knives. Also- a small section of finishing agent that came off due to finish being struck by hard object.

chip marks: Tiny indentations in the surface of the plank caused by small chips of wood being forced into the surface during the process of planning or moulding. May be caused by insufficient dust collection

chip out: Wood that is chipped off the edge of a piece as the cutting edge exits the wood surface.

chipping: The breaking away of a small portion of the paint film due to its inability to flex under the impact or with the thermal expansion and contraction of the substrate. It is usually caused by the use of too brittle a film or poor adhesion to the base materia

chlorophyll: A green pigment found in most plants. It is responsible for the absorption of light, allowing photosynthesis to occur.

circular saw: Any power saw with a circular blade.

circular saw blade: A flat round saw blade having teeth on its perimeter. The number of teeth in the circumference of the blade will vary greatly depending on the diameter of the blade and it’s intended use.

circular sawn: Refers to a piece of lumber that was cut by a circular saw and which therefore has curved saw blade tooth marking on the face, compare to band sawn.

clean & dry: The desired condition of a surface prior to finishing; free of oil, grease, wax, moisture, and other contaminates that may affect the adhesion of a finishing agent or adhesive.

clear: No knots on the face- small minor defects may be allowed on back face. An appearance grade even higher than FAS grade.

clear vertical grain: CVG-a lumber grading term that means no knots (clear), and with annual growth rings perpendicular to the face of the plank(vertical grain) Example: quarter sawn.

cleat: A barbed fastener commonly used as a mechanical device to fasten hardwood flooring.

climb cut: A cut made in the opposite direction from normal: stock is feed into the tool in the same direction as the rotation of the blade. Avoids some chip out, but can be VERY DANGEROUS as control of piece may be lost.

close grain: Wood with narrow growth rings. This is normally the result of slow growth, typically in northern woods. These woods normally have tight or fine grain such as Birch, maple, cherry, N. Poplar, Walnut , white oak.

close grain hardwood: Such as Cherry, Maple, Birch, and yellow poplar are “diffuse-porous” species. Most North American diffuse-porous woods have small dense pores resulting in less distinct figure and grain. Some tropical diffuse-porous species (e.g. Mahogany) have rather lar

closed staircase: A traditional staircase in which there are both treads and risers.

cloudiness: The lack of clarity or transparency in paint or varnish film.

coalescence: The fusing together of a latex film upon evaporation of water.

coat: A single layer of a finishing agent, or the act of applying a single layer of a finishing agent to a surface.

coating: Any material applied to the surface leaving a protective layer on that surface.

coating system: A number of coats of finishing agents applied separately and in a predetermined order, at suitable intervals to allow for drying and curing.

cob webbing: An effect where there is too rapid drying of a coating, causing the surface to crack, sometimes in a pattern that resembles a spider web. the tendency of a sprayed finish to form strings or strands rather than droplets as it leaves the gun. It may be cau

code: Rules set down by various governing agencies and specify minimally acceptable building practices.

cohesion: The form of attraction by which the particles of a body are united throughout the system.

cold checking: Checks or cracks which appear in the dried film when it is subjected to repeated sudden and appreciable reductions in temperature. In furniture, cold checks usually take the form of parallel lines more or less at right angles to the direction of the grain

color change: Visual changes in the color of the wood species caused by exposure to light, deprivation of light and air, or some chemical reaction.

color circle: Aame as color wheel.

color fast: Coloring that is not significantly affected by exposure to sunlight.

color float: When one or more colors, different from the original color, appear on the surface after the finishing material has been applied, it is said to have color float. Caused by imperfect wetting of the pigment particles, by too great differences of specific gr

color match:

color retention: The ability to retain its original color during weathering or chemical exposure.

color standards: A set of standardized color samples for comparing and classifying the color of oils, resins, varnishes, lacquers, paints or other finishing materials or their ingredients.

color variations: all woods exhibit variation in color within a single species due to growing conditions, soil composition, variation in early and late wood etc.

color wheel: An organization of color hues around a circle, showing relationships between colors considered to be primary colors, secondary colors, complementary colors etc.

colorant: A dye, pigment or other agent used to impart a color to something.

comb grain: Describes rift cut or quarter sawn lumber/ veneer that has exceptionally straight, closely spaced grain lines resembling the appearance of long strands of neatly combed straight hair.

combustible: Capable of being set on fire.

common: A lumber grade that allows a percentage of obvious defects such as knots. NHLA describes rules for #1 Common grade of hardwoods.

common name: A local name given to a wood.

compartment kiln: A kiln in which all the lumber is put in at one time as a single unit. It is designed so that at any given time the temperature and relative humidity is uniform throughout.

compatibility: the ability of two or more materials to mix with each other without separation or chemical reaction.

complementary colors: Pairs of colors that are of opposite hue.

composite material: Any material formed artificially by the combination of two or more other materials. Plywood, MDF, OSB.

compression wood: A type of reaction wood that typically occurs in softwood trees on the lower side of a bent tree or branch. It is more dense, but has less shear strength, shrinks along the grain more and has wider late wood.

compression-set: Boards being subjected to a substantial increase in moisture while being restrained from swelling by adjacent boards, resulting in a permanent narrowing of the boards due to edges of the board being crushed. Followed by lower moisture and contraction that

concave: An inward curving shape.

conditioning: The exposure of wood to an atmosphere of similar temperature and relative humidity to that in which it will be installed to minimize movement in service.

conifer: A botanical term for trees that produce seeds in cones and that have needle-shaped or scale like leaves. Such trees are the source of softwood as opposed to deciduous trees that are the source of hardwood.

continual flow corner: Also known as an integral corner. A border designed so that the pattern continues through the corner uninterrupted.

contrasting colors: obviously different from each other- separated from each other by at least 3 spots on a color wheel

conversion varnish: A catalyzed alkyd based coating that is tough and resistant to household chemicals.

convex: An outward curving shape.

corbel: A triangular piece of wood attached at the top to a vertical member for extra supporting area for a horizontally supported load at the top of the vertical member.

corner block: Cabinet door frame, decorative blocks added to the inside corners of a straight door frame. They can be shaped like a straight 45 degree angle or radius, and be installed in one, two or all corners of the frame. In a floor, border element designed to com

course grain: Rapid growth wood with wide growth rings. Typical of southern woods. Usually have more open grain example: Ash, Red Oak, Hickory.

cove: A semicircular, oval or “U” shaped concave depression along the length of a strip of moulding.

coverage: Hiding power of a paint usually expressed in square feet per gallon.

cracking: Splitting of a paint film usually as a result of aging.

cratering: The formation of small depressions in a finish sometimes called “fish eye”. Often caused by the contamination of the finish material or the substrate with silicone, oil or other substances.

crawling: The tendency of a liquid to draw up into drops or globules as a result of abnormally high degree of surface tension.

crazing: The appearance of minute, interfacing cracks or checks on the surface of a dried film or finishing material, due to unequal contraction in drying or cooling.

creep: The ability of an adhesive to allow movement of a joint over time.

crinkling: Descriptive of the shriveling or crinkling of the fatty or thick edge of the dried film of finishing material.

crocking: When the color rubs off on the clothing, especially when wet, the finishing material is said to crock.

crook: A drying defect in which the board remains flat, but the ends move away from the center. The distortion of a board in which there is a deviation, in a direction perpendicular to the edge from a straight line from end to end of the piece.

cross cut: To cut across the grain of wood.

cross directed: Laying of material perpendicular to the material below it.

cross fire: A general term applied to all various types of figure markings in wood that run across the grain and which are generally caused by interlocked grain, such as mottle, curly and fiddle back.

cross grain: Description of wood in which fibers do not run parallel to the long edge of the piece.

crown moulding: A moulding that is at the juncture of a wall and ceiling.

crowning: A convex or crowned condition or appearance of individual strips with the center of the strip higher than the edges ( opposite of cupping). While possible to occur from excessive moisture, more likely to occur when previously cupped floor is sanded before

cup: The distortion of a board that deviates flat wise from a straight line across the board.

cupping: A concave or dished appearance of individual strips with the edges above the center (opposite of crowning) Usually results from excessive moisture on the bottom side of flooring. More subtle cupping caused by lack of proper acclimation- permanent.

cure: the process by which a finish is converted from the liquid to solid state. To change the properties of an adhesive by chemical reaction and thereby develop maximum strength. Term applies to glue down application of flooring.

curing: The complete drying of a finish to the ultimate development of its properties.

curing agent: A hardener or activator added to a finishing agent are adhesive to cause or enhance the curing process.

curing time: The time it takes for an adhesive to set.

curl: The condition of planks that exhibit the lumber defect known as bow.

curly grain: Synonymous with wavy grain.

curly figure: Distortions in grain direction reflect light differently along the length of the board, creating an appearance of undulating waves known as curly figure.

curtaining: A broad ridge of sagging finishing agent on a vertical surface resembling the shape of a draped curtain most seen with paint.

custom floors: Wood Floors that are made to order. Complete flexibility is allowed for design, species, grade etc.

cut: A path made in a work piece by a blade.

cut type: The type of cut made in a log to produce boards and planks. Ex. Back cut, bastard cut, crown cut, flat cut, plain sawn, quarter cut, quarter sawn, rift cut, rotary cut, through and through, etc.

cutoff saw: any saw used to cut off the end of a board.

cutter burn: synonymous with machine burn.

cutting: The process of using an edged tool to separate a piece of material into two or more pieces.

cutting allowance: When estimating the amount of flooring to be ordered, the extra amount needed to allow installers to make cuts as needed. This should not be confused as waste.

cutting angle: The angular orientation between the cutting edge and the surface it is cutting.

cutting unit: In NHLA rules, this generally refers to a piece of wood 1” square x 12” long or the equivalent 12 square inches.

D2S: Dressed 2 sides- same as S2S - surfaced 2 sides.

D4S: Dressed 4 sides- same as S4S - surfaced 4 sides.

dado: A rectangular slot cut across the face of a plank, perpendicular to the grain, so that an end or edge of another plank can be inserted to form a joint. If the cut is made at the end of a board, it is called a rabbet.

Danish oil: A general name for any number of wipe on coatings based on Tung or linseed oil, with solvents and resins added to enhance both drying and performance.

dark: Lumber that is selected for all heartwood on the face of the board

debark: To remove the bark from trees or logs.

decay: Advanced decay-the older stage of decay in which destruction is readily recognized by soft, pitted or crumbly areas. Incipient decay indicated early signs indicated by slight discoloration or bleaching of wood. Same as rot.

decay resistance: The extent to which wood can resist the things that cause decay.

decayed knot: A knot, that due to decay is softer than the surrounding wood.

deciduous: The term given to broad leaf trees which shed leaves annually. Most hardwood trees.

decking: Commonly meant to mean an outdoor floor.

defects: A flaw in the wood affecting the appearance, or structural strength and thus the value. Common defects include knots, worm holes, bird pecks, (Bark pockets), wane, pitch, checks, unsound burls, shake, splits, drying defects, machine defects.

deformed fasteners: Fasteners in which the sides are not smooth and the head shape may be irregular. Examples are ring shank and screw shank nails.

degrade: Wood that is not of the grade being inspected. Also called outs.

dehumidification: The process of removing moisture from the air.

delamination: Separation of the plies of plywood or laminated surfaces from the core through failure of the adhesive the separation of layers in an engineered product, through failure within the adhesive, wear layer and substructure.

demarcation: A term relating to the point of separation of two parts- The boundary between heartwood and sapwood.

denatured alcohol: Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) with small quantities of chemical added to render it unfit for drinking- used as fuel and as a solvent in shellac and some dyes.

dendochronology: A scientific method of dating objects based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings.

density: A measure of mass per unit volume- usually expressed in pounds per cubic foot or kilograms per cubic meter

dent: Crushed spot in the wood due to dropped objects, metal tips on furniture, high heels.

depth of finish: A desirable visual impression which is illustrated by viewing a thick film of varnish which exhibits excellent smoothness or evenness.

dew point: The temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and the vapor begins to condense into liquid form on surfaces.

dewaxed shellac: Shellac that has had removed from it the natural small amount of wax that the lac bugs produce. Not required if it is the only finish agent used on a surface, but if used as an undercoat or barrier coat, dewaxed required to allow other finishing agents to

diagonal: At an angle less than 90degrees.

diffuse porous woods: Certain hardwoods in which the pores tend to be uniform in size and distribution throughout each annual ring or to decease slightly in size and gradually toward the outer border of the annual growth ring. (Ex Hard Maple) contrast to ring porous.

dimension lumber: Lumber that is cut to standard commercial sizes for use in the construction industry. Sold in nominal sizes- example: 1 x 6 is 3/4 x 5-1/2".

dimensional stability: The ability to maintain the original intended dimensions when influenced by a foreign substance. Wood is hygroscopic and is not dimensionally stable with changes in moisture content below the fiber saturation point.

dip: An application technique for putting finishing agents on a wood surface.

dirty: Not clean, containing foreign matter, usually of a finely divided solid nature. A dirty color is one that is muddy or not clear and bright.

discoloration: An unexpected and undesirable change in the color of wood. Could be caused by stains, chemical reactions or unexpected reactions with finishing agents or adhesives.

dish out: Area on the wood floor where softer parts of wood appear to have been sanded or hollowed out more than other areas. Evident in wood species that exhibit pronounced spring and summer wood grain patterns.

dissolve: To cause to change in a liquid called a solvent, from a solid to a matter that becomes part of a liquid.

distilled water: Water that has been purified by vaporizing the liquid, collecting the vapor, and then condensing it back to a liquid. This removes contaminants.

distinctness of image: The sharpness with which image outlines are reflected by the surface of an object.

distressed: Classification of character markings and coloration with regard to antique flooring. Usually milled from reclaimed boards and beams, this grade of flooring will contain tight and possibly open knots, nail and spike holes, cracks up to 1/8” wide, worm hole

distressing: May be of a mechanical or chemical nature to give special effects.

domestic: Of local origin, any wood that is grown in the USA.

dowel: A wooden cylinder.

drawer fronts: Mounted onto the front of a cabinet drawer, but can be made as Slab drawer fronts, or as smaller versions of a door. Can be either flat panel or raised panel, with the grain running horizontally.

dress: To smooth over and bring to a straight or flat condition.

dressed lumber: Lumber that has been dressed by a smoothing process such as a planer or jointer on at least one face or edge.

dressed size: This is the actual size or nominal size.

drips: The small drops of material which collect on the edge of dipped work.

dry fit: Temporarily assembling the separate pieces of a woodworking assembly without adhesive or permanent fasteners to check for accuracy and fit.

dry lumber: Lumber that has had its moisture content reduced by air drying or kiln drying to the point where it can be put into service. For softwoods dry means below 19% moisture content. In hardwoods below 10% is generally accepted (6-8% for millwork).

dry rot: The condition of wood that has undergone brown rot in a moist condition but which is now dry. The cell structure of the wood is broken down.

dry spray: Condition caused by the partial drying of the liquid coating prior to reaching the surface to be coated. The pint particles do not flow out to form a smooth film.

dry to pack: The stage of solidification of an applied film of finishing material when it is sufficiently hard that the coated article can be packaged for shipment.

dry to recoat: The time required for a cured film to dry prior to the application of the second coat.

dry to rub: That stage of solidification of an applied film of finishing material when it can be rubbed with an abrasive and a lubricant without softening appreciably or “picking up” on the rubbing pad.

dry to sand: That stage of solidification of an applied film of finishing material when it can be sanded without undue softening, sticking or clogging the sandpaper.

dry to tack free: A stage at which the coating film will form a skin to which dust will not adhere.

dry to touch: the state of dry at which a coating film will not transfer onto an item touched lightly against it.

drying: The process of removing the moisture from green wood to improve its workability and to stabilize it so that it will not change size/shape when put into service. Also- the act of changing from a liquid film to a solid film by the evaporation of solvents, o

drying defect: An irregularity that develops during the drying process that changes the value, appearance, strength, durability and general utility. Most common drying defects are: case hardening, checks, chemical stain, collapse, honeycomb, warp: bow-crook-cup-twist.

drying schedule: A sequence of wood drying conditions generally done in a kiln which results in the gradual decrease in moisture content of the wood- also called kiln schedule.

drying time: Time allotted for an applied coating film to reach a set stage of solidification or hardness.

drywall: Interior covering material(such as gypsum board, hardboard, or plywood) that is applied in large sheets or panels.

dull: Lacking brightness, clearness of luster; lack of sharpness on an edge.

dulling: Reduction of sharpness on a cutting edge; a loss of gloss or sheen on the surface of a finishing agent.

durability: The ability of the wood species or finish to withstand the conditions or destructive agents with which it comes into contact with in actual usage, without an appreciable change in appearance or other important properties; the ability of wood to resist att

dust: Small particles of solid matter. Also a grading or size of natural resin.

dust nibs: The surface defect in a dried finishing agent caused by small particles settling on the surface of the finish as it was drying, before the film has formed on the surface- usually repaired by sanding or rubbing out.

dwell time: Length or amount of time.

dye: Any type of coloring agent that soaks into the fibers of the wood. It is used to evenly color wood before applying a finishing agent. Dyes have extremely small pigment particles that soak into the molecular structure of the wood.

ease: To slightly soften the sharp edge on a piece of wood by slightly rounding are applying a slight bevel.

eased edge: The chamfered or beveled edge of strip flooring, plank, block and parquet at approximately a 45 degree angle.

edge banding: Thin solid wood or veneer strips used to cover the exposed edges of panel products such as plywood. Generally applied oversized and flush trimmed.

edge joining: Squaring the edges of two boards and gluing them together in an edge joint.

edge joint: A joint made by bonding two pieces of wood together edge to edge usually by gluing. A plain edge joint is also called a butt joint.

edge miter joint: A joint where the edge of one plank meets the edge of another plank at 90 degrees and each edge is cut on a 45 degree angle.

edge profiles: A machined shape on the outside edge of a cabinet door or drawer.

effervescence: An effect that can happen in a finishing agent if there is rapid release of volatile gasses. This causes pinhole or cratered appearance reducing gloss.

elastic limit: The extent of deformation beyond which a material will not return to its original shape.

elasticity: That property of a substance which allows it to stretch or to change size or shape and to return to its original condition without breaking or rupturing.

embossing: Refers to the surface treatment in which heat and pressure against a master pattern wheel impresses a variety of textured effects into the wood surface, which still remains smooth and paintable. Example: crown moulding embossed with egg and dart profiles

EMC - Equilibrium Moisture Content: The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when surrounded by air of a given relative humidity and temperature.

enamel: A colored varnish or high gloss paint for interior use that has a sheen level from satin to glossy.

encased knot: A loose knot in which the annual rings are not inter-grown with the surrounding wood, and there may be pitch pockets and areas of bark between the knot and the surrounding wood. Formed when a branch dies, leaving a cylinder of dead wood inside the growing

end check: A through check at the end of a board; a split in the end of the board that occurs as a drying defect.

end grain: The wood grain as seen looking at the end of a plank as opposed to the edge or face.

end joint: The place where two pieces of flooring are joined together end to end.

end matched: The ends of individual planks have a tongue milled on one end and a groove milled on the opposite end, so that when the planks are butted together, the tongue of one piece engages the groove of the next piece.

engineered: An assembly made by bonding layers of veneer or lumber with an adhesive so that most adjacent layers have their grains going in perpendicular directions to increase dimensional stability.

engineered wood flooring: A wood flooring product manufactured by gluing thick hardwood veneer onto a plywood base and with T & G on the edges.

epicormic branch: A branch growing out of the main stem of a tree from buds produced abnormally- increases knottiness and reduces lumber quality. – usually brought on or aggravated by fire or damage to the tree.

epoxy: A two part resin plus hardener glue that is very strong, low shrinking during drying and will bond most materials. Also a finishing agent that is highly resistant to mechanical wear and to water and chemical stains. comes in a two part system and produces

equal linear pattern: Also commonly referred to as a repeating pattern. For installation purposes where more than one width of flooring is used, a specific pattern is created by alternating widths in a consistent sequence so as to use equal lineal footages of each width.

evaporation: The process by which a liquid turns to a gas- a process by which volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) are eliminated from finishing agents.

evergreen: A tree that does not drop its leaves in the fall. Conifers are evergreen. Tend to be softwoods, but some hardwoods in tropical and temperate climates are evergreen.

exotic wood: Generally refers to imported or tropical species, but may contain indigenous species with exceptional figure or grain.

expansion space: The necessary gap that separates hardwood floor from any fixed objects like walls, door jambs, kitchen islands, and exposed pipes. Expansion space recommended to be at least ¼” in normal sized rooms.

exterior glue: Adhesive used for outdoor applications. May be waterproof or water resistant.

extractives: Chemicals created in wood as the sapwood dies and becomes heartwood- the cause of the difference between heartwood and sapwood- also gives heartwood the resistance to decay and insect attack.

exudates: Secretions such as resin, gum, oil or latex over the surface of lumber, created by kiln drying at high temperatures. May adversely affect machining, gluing and finishing.

eye: A localized distortion of wood fiber, roughly circular in shape- such as bird’s eye figure an some burls.

face: The better quality side of the two wide surfaces of a plank, as opposed to the back which is the lesser quality of the two. The outward directed wide surface of a plank when it is in service.

face checking: Partial separation of wood fibers parallel to the grain caused by stress in weathering or seasoning.

face frame: A flat frame attached to the front of a cabinet.

face grain: The wood grain as you look onto the face of a board or panel.

face nailing: Inserting a nail directly into the face of a plank.

fading: The loss of color due to exposure to light, heat or other destructive agents.

FAS- First and Seconds: The top grade of hardwoods recognized by the National Hardwood Lumber Association.

FAS one face: The NHLA grade requires and fast face on the best side of the board and the back or poor side of the board grading #1 Common or better.

fastener: A method or device used to attach wood flooring to a subfloor.

feature strip or accent strip: Usually a single board surrounding a room or at a transition area- often in another species and a contrasting color from the wood used in the field.

feed: To push a work piece in a controlled manner toward a moving blade, cutter belt or other moving tool part in some way that shapes the work piece.

fiber: the smallest diameter tubular elements in hardwoods. They have thick walls and closed ends and do not carry nutrients.

fiber saturation point: The stage in drying or wetting wood at which the cell walls are saturated with water and the cell cavities are free from water. Usually at approx. 30% moisture content based on oven dry weight. When wood drops below, it begins to shrink.

fiberboard: A broad generic term inclusive of sheet materials of widely varying densities manufactured of refined or partially refined wood or other vegetable fibers. Bonding agents and other materials may be added to increase strength, resistance to moisture, fire o

fiddleback: Curly figure in wood with interlocked grain causing light to be reflected differently at different portions of the grain. Curls are tight and uniform generally running perpendicular to the grain and across the entire width of the board.

field: The main area of the floor.

figure: Inherent markings, designs or configurations on the surface of the wood produced by annual growth rings, rays, knots and deviations from regular grain such as curly, interlocked and wavy as well irregular color.

filler: Any substrate used to fill character markings and irregularities in sanded flooring before applying finish coatings used to advance the final build and smoothness of the finish. Filler may be neutral or contrasting to accent the pores. The use of filler a

fillets: The small pieces used to form finger-block parquet patterns. Also called fingers or slats.

film build: The dry film thickness characteristic of a coat.

finger- block parquet: Parquet pattern made from small strips of wood, typically quarter sawn bound together.

finish: A chemical that is applied to a wood surface so as to bring out the grain and/or protect the wood from conditions such as mechanical wear, up rays, and moisture.

finish size: Measurements that reflect the actual completed size of a product.

finishing: The final treatment of a work piece after the tool work has been completed. This can include filling, sanding, applying finis, and polishing.

finishing agent: A chemical compound suitable for covering wood in a permanent, attractive and protective way, Finishing agents include: acrylic, epoxy, lacquer, paint, polyurethane, shellac, stain, urethane, varnish, wax, etc.

fire resistance: The property of a material or assembly to withstand fire or give protection from it.

fire retardant: A chemical or preparation of chemicals used to reduce flammability or to retard spread of fire over a surface.

first European quality: FEQ - the top grade for wood purchased in Europe. This grade is superior to FAS grade.

fisheye: Asurface depression or crater in the wet finish film. Fisheyes are caused by repulsion of the wet finish by a surface contaminate such as oil or silicone materials. The depression may or may not reveal the surface under the finish.

flag: A heavy dark mineral streak shaped like a banner.

flag worn hole: One or more wormholes surrounded by a mineral streak.

flaking: The phenomenon of the detachment of small pieces of dried film from underneath the surface.

flame spread: The propagation of a flame away from the source of ignition across the surface of a liquid or a solid or through the volume of a gaseous mixture.

flammability: The ease with which a substance can be set on fire.

flammable: Describes any material that will catch fire easily and continue to burn- having a flash point less than 100 degrees fare height.

flash off time: Time which must be allowed after the application of a paint film before baking in order that the initial solvents are released, which prevents bubbling.

flash point: The temperature at which a material will ignite.

flat panel: Typically a ¼” thick panel made from solid wood, plywood or veneers.

flat sawn: Most common and least expensive method of sawing. First saw cut is made on a tangent to the circumference and all cuts are parallel to the first. This provides widest boards and least waste. Most lumber produced is flat grained, with some vertical grained

flecks: The wide irregular, conspicuous figure in quarter sawn oak flooring.

floating floor: A floor that does not need to be nailed or glued down to the subfloor. Typically the flooring panels are connected together by adhesive or mechanical connectors.

flood: The excessive application of considerably more finishing material than is necessary to secure satisfactory results.

flooding: The change in color of a pigmented finishing material from that exhibited at the time of application to that shown, in the dried film. Flooding is due to a uniform color float by which one tone of the color becomes stronger as the film dries.

floor board: A board, generally finished with a tongue and groove, fixed to the floor joists or subflooring to provide a flooring surface.

flooring: A material used to create a floor, generally mounted on top of subflooring.

flow: The characteristic of a coating which allows it to level or spread into a smooth film of uniform thickness before hardening.

flute: A deep channel cut in wood- usually with a semi-circular bottom.

force drying: The acceleration of drying by increasing the ambient temperature.

free water: Water found in the cell cavities of wood- compare to bound water.

French polish: A mixture of shellac and alcohol rubbed on with a cloth pad, usually to a high sheen.

fuming: A technique for enriching the color of wood, particularly white oak. The wood to be treated is left in a chamber with an open container of ammonia solution for a day to weeks. The ammonia reacts with the tannin in the wood and darkens the color.

fungus: The taxonomic kingdom fungi includes yeasts, molds, mildews and many thousands of mushroom species. Mold and mildew cause stains and decay in wood.

fuzzy: Wood surface that has loose, frayed fibers instead of clean cut ones. Can occur when machining wood with high moisture content, dull tooling, wild grain.

gaps: Spaces between individual boards. Normal to open and close with changes in humidity.

gel: the act of taking on body or becoming gelatinous or jelly-like

glazing: An added step for achieving color uniformity and depth, and for highlighting the wood’s grain pattern.

gloss: Also referred to as sheen. A surface shininess or luster.

gloss meter: An instrument for measuring reflected light from a finished surface to define sheen. Can be used at different angles of deflection, the most common of which are 20, 60 and 85 degrees.

glue down installation: A method of installing in which planks (usually engineered) are glued using appropriate mastic directly to the subfloor. This application is often used for concrete subfloors.

glue joint: a joint that uses adhesive instead of nails or screws

glue line: the adhesive joint formed between two boards in a joint.

golden rectangle: A rectangle which has as its ratio of length to width equal to 1.618 (the golden ratio) l/w=(l+w/l ) (1 + sqrt5)/2 .

grade: The result of a process called grading by which boards are classified according to characteristics and quality standards as set by NHLA. Grading takes into account size, type and size of acceptable flaws and other characteristics.

grain: The direction, size, arrangement and appearance of the fibers in wood or veneer.

grain raising: The objectionable roughness of wood caused by the application and absorption of stains or other materials. The roughness is due to the short, broken fibers of wood which more or less stand up due to the swelling or raising action of the liquid coating.

grayness: An objectionable, hazy, dull appearance in a rubbed film, usually caused by the finish being oil rubbed too soon after application. Avoided by allowing more drying time.

grey pores: The objectionable appearance when the pores of the wood have a bleached, yellowish or grayish look after the finishing coats are applied. Caused by improper formulation of the filler or top coats or by the use of filler too weak in color strength for the

grit: Refers to the size of the particles used in sandpaper and sharpening stones- represents the number of particles in one square inch.

groove: A long narrow channel cut in wood.

gross lumber tally: Lumber measured in board feet when freshly cut and before kiln drying (which will shrink the wood and reduce the board footage).

gullet: A relief area cut in front of the tooth of a saw blade in order to provide a temporary place to store the material cut away by the tooth on each pass of the blade. Design of gullet must consider type of material being cut, type of cut (rip, crosscut), spe

gum patch: A particular form of gum pocket that commonly forms in American black cherry. Looks a little like black- line spalting or bark inclusion.

gymnosperm: A botanical classification for plants whose seeds are not enclosed in ovaries. Within this group are all softwood tree species. They have cones, and tend to have needles instead of broad leaves, and tend to be evergreen.

hair lines: Fine lines or incipient checks in the dried surface of finishing materials. Often caused by sudden temperature changes.

hairline: Thin, perceptible lines, usually showing in the joint.

hand rubbed finish: The name given to an effect that is created by the manual process of applying a combination of abrasives and lubricants, after the final topcoat has dried- to smooth, flatten or dull the topcoat.

handrail: A long narrow strip or cylinder of wood used for grasping by hand, as an assistance to maintaining balance and help when climbing up a stair or slope. A banister is one type of handrail.

hard setting: When agitation will not uniform liquid or homogenize.

hardness: The degree a material will withstand pressure without deforming. The property of a coating which causes it to resist denting or penetration by a hard object.

hardwood: Deciduous trees that have broad leaves in contrast to conifers or softwoods. The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.

hardwood dimension lumber: Refers to hardwood lumber processed to a user-specified thickness, width, and length.

helical: Having the shape of a helix; spiral.

haze: The dullness of a surface that prevents a clear reflection of light. Usually caused by partial precipitation of one or more ingredients during the drying period. Only removed by polishing or cleaning.

headrig: The principal saw in a sawmill on which logs are first cut into cants- could be a circular saw or band saw.

heart: The very center of a tree where the pith is. The heartwood of the tree extends from the heart to the sapwood.

heart face: The face grain surface of a plank that is all heartwood.

heartwood: The non living wood extending from the pith to the sapwood,. It is usually darker than the sapwood.

heaving: The slight swelling or raising of the surface caused by partial softening of the undercoat by the solvents in the succeeding coat.

heavy body: A general term denoting a relatively high viscosity in the liquid state or the deposition of a film of great thickness before drying.

heavy coat: A generous or excessive coat of finishing material.

herringbone flooring: A floor pattern produced by laying strips of flooring all the same length in a zigzag pattern that is created by placing the end of one piece into the side of another. The individual pieces must be the exact same length, and are usually cut using a doub

hiding, complete: The ability of a coating to obscure the surface to which it is applied. Hiding power is provided by the paint’s pigment.

high build: A term referring to a finishing agent for which each coat produces a thick layer.

high speed steel: HSS- a grade of steel about 6 times harder than carbon steel and able to retain a cutting edge 5 to 10 times linger than carbon steel.

hit and miss: When a planning operation on a plank results in only some of the planks surface being planed, some of it having skip- it is called hit and miss skip.

hogging: Removing a large amount of wood.

holdout: The ability to prevent the coating from soaking into the substrate.

holiday: A finishing term referring to any bare or thin spot- ( a missed spot).

honeycombing: Internal splitting or collapse, often not visible at the wood surface, that develops as a drying defect . Checks often not visible at the surface that occurring the interior of the piece of wood, usually along the rays.

horsepower: A measurement of power, nominally equal to the pulling strength of one horse, or the power to lift 550 lbs one foot off the ground in one second.

humidity: The common shorthand term for Relative Humidity, which is to say the amount of vaporized moisture in an atmosphere relative to temperature- the amount of water vapor in the air.

hydrophilic: A substance which absorbs or has an affinity for water.

hydrophobic: A substance which neither absorbs or has any affinity for water.

hygrometer: An instrument for measuring the degree of humidity or relative humidity in the atmosphere.

hygroscopic: A substance that can absorb and retain moisture, or lose or throw off moisture. Wood and wood products are hygroscopic. The expand with absorption of moisture and dimensions become smaller when moisture is lost or thrown off.

IBC (International Building Code): A model building code developed by the International code council adopted throughout most of the United States.

In Situ: A Latin term that means “in place” or “on site”, the term applies to testing done on site, or on materials in their original location, as opposed to testing done in a laboratory.

incipient decay: The early stages of decay that has not proceeded far enough to soften or otherwise impair the hardness of the wood. Usually accompanied by discoloration or bleaching.

incompatible: Unsuitable for use together because of undesirable chemical or physical effects- the term indicates that one material cannot be mixed with another specified material without separation or impairment of properties.

inert: Not moving or acting, chemically inactive- portion of finishing agents which are stable (non-reactive).

infeed: Direction, area or process of feeding a work piece into a blade or cutter.

inorganic: compounds that do not contain carbon-

insert: The part of a door that fills the space inside the door frame. Can be raised panel, flat panel, glass or other material.

insert tooling:

insoluble: Not capable of being dissolved in liquid.

intercoat adhesion: The adhesion between successive cots of paint.

intercoat contamination: The presence of foreign matter such as dust or dirt between successive coats of paint.

intergrown knot: Rings of annual growth of the knot are intergrown with those of surrounding wood. Will not fall out , but may have cracks or voids.

interlocked: A term used to describe the grain in the wood where the tree fibers have twisted during growth, resulting in a spiral orientation of the fibers up the trunk rather than parallel to the centerline of the tree.

internal stress: Stress that exists within a piece of lumber even in the absence of applied external forces. Example: Casehardening.

intumescent coating: A type of fire retardant coating which when heated, produces nonflammable gasses which are trapped by the film, converting it to a foam, thereby insulating the material underneath.

isopropyl alcohol: A volatile, flammable liquid used as a solvent, commonly known as rubbing alcohol.

jamb: The vertical side members of door or window frame, including the frame itself.

Janka: A unit of measure used to describe the surface hardness of wood. A Janka rating is determined by the amount of force required to drive a 0.444 inch steel ball half its diameter into the wood product.

joint: The edge where two touching members or components come together.

joint staggering: The process of laying flooring planks such that the places where the ends meet do not fall next to each other, but rather are staggered across the width of the floor.

jointed flooring: Strip flooring, usually birch, beech , hard maple or pecan manufactured with square edges and no tongue or groove usually end matched. Used principally for factory floors where square edges make replacement of strips easier.

joist: One of a series of parallel beams used to support floor or ceiling loads and supported by larger beams, girders, or bearing walls.

juvenile wood: Wood formed early in the life of a tree, and is therefore at the center of the tree.

KD: Kiln Dried.

kerf: The area of cut made by a saw blade. The area where there used to be wood before the saw blade cut it away. The width of a saw blade.

kerfing: Making a series of parallel crosscuts part way through one face of a length of wood so that the piece can be curved towards the kerfed face.

ketone: An organic compound that is strong, fast evaporating solvent used as part of paints to stabilize the other ingredients so that they don’t degrade as quickly over time acetone is a ketone.

kick out: The precipitation of a dissolved binder from a solution as a result of solvent incompatibility.

kickback: The action of a work piece being thrown back towards the operator by a moving blade or cutter. Can be prevented by featherboards and anti-kickback devices installed on equipment.

kiln: A chamber having controlled air flow, temperature and relative humidity, for drying lumber .

kiln conditioned: Similar moisture content in all “core” or center of boards in a kiln charge. Usually done by injecting steam into the kiln during the beginning of the drying process. Later , after the kiln process has removed the excess moisture in the boards, steam is a

kiln dried: Lumber dried in a kiln using artificial heat. Prepares lumber to proper moisture content for further manufacturing. Most KD hardwoods are dried to 6-8%.Kiln drying also kills bugs and larvae that infect green lumber.

kiln schedule: Same as drying schedule.

kink: A localized fairly sharp crook, as opposed to the normal more gradual curved crook, most often due to a knot and likely to happen in fairly narrow stock.

knife marks: marks left by planer knives during the dressing of a plank

knot: Portion of a branch or limb which has been surrounded by subsequent growth of the stem. The shape of the knot as it appears on the cut surface depends on the angle of the cut relative to the long axis of the knot. Small knot not over ½” in diameter. Pin k

knot sealer: A shellac-based sealer used to coat resinous knots that would otherwise stain subsequent finishes.

knothole: Void produced when an encased knot drops out of lumber.

knotty: Lumber that is selected to allow solid or sound knots on the face.

lacquer: A type of varnish that has many different formulations with some variations in characteristics. Materials that dry quickly by solvent evaporation. There are both natural and synthetic lacquers, both available transparent and pigmented.

lacquer thinner: A blend of solvents used to reduce viscosity of lacquer and/or to eliminate blushing.

laminate: The process of bonding together two layers of material with adhesive and heat/pressure.

laminated wood: An assembly made by bonding layers of veneer to a substructure with an adhesive.

landing: An intermediate platform in a staircase, part way between two floors of a building; a wide area halfway up a two part staircase.

lap marks: Marks left when a coat of finishing agent extends over an adjacent coat that has been allowed to dry too long so that the two coats do not blend and the edge of the second coat just sits on the top of the first coat.

leaf: An organ on a tree typically divided into a flattened portion and a narrow stalk, serving as the principle site of photosynthesis.

leveling: Ability of a film to flow out free from ripples, pock marks, orange peel, brush marks, runs, sags, or other surface defects after application.

leveling agent: Additive which is able to reduce the surface tension of a finishing agent to obtain better wetting and leveling effect, and to improve the surface flow of a finishing agent.

life: an expression of the period of time a film will retain elasticity or durability

lifting: Softening of a dried film by the solvents of a succeeding coat, which causes raising and wrinkling of the first coat.

light fastness: The ability to withstand color change on exposure to light.

lignin: The natural adhesive and bonding agents found in the cellular structure of wood. It is the cementing layer between wood cells and the second most abundant component of wood.

linear foot: Measurement based on length in feet of a product. A measure frequently used in selling wood planks and mouldings. It refers to a one foot long section, regardless of length and thickness, and is used in place of board foot pricing.

linseed oil: Aka flax seed oil- a clear to yellowish oil obtained from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant. Used on its own as is or blended with other oils, resins, and solvents to create a wood finishing agent.

livering: Is when the coating becomes gel-like in the container.

log cabin corner: Also called lapped corner- a corner pattern in which ends of perpendicular boards overlap, the end of one butting up against the side of another.

loose knot: A knot that is not held firmly in place by growth and cannot be relied upon to remain in place when the board is put in service.

lumber: Solid wood in any form that has been reduced by cutting into a tree.

luster: Shine/polish/sheen/- the way in which something reflects light.

machine burn: A darkening of wood due to overheating by a cutting edge. Due to a dull cutting edge or wood and cutting edge remaining in contact too long.

manufacturing defects: Includes all defects or blemishes that are produced in manufacturing, such as chipped grain, torn grain, skips in dressing, hit and miss ( a series of surfaced areas with skips between them) variation in machining, machine burn, mismatching.

mastic: The material used in a glue-down installation to adhere wood floors to approved interior subfloors.

MBF: Thousand board feet.

MDF Medium Density Fiberboard: A core or panel product manufactured from wood fibers combined with synthetic resin or other bonding system. MDF is manufactured with medium density of 331 lbs/cubic foot up to 55 lbs/cubic foot by the application of heat and pressure.

mechanical defects: Wood flaws caused by mechanical means most often a drying defect.

mechanical fastener: A mechanical device such as a cleat or staple or nail Specifically designed for the purpose of installing wood flooring. The fastener is coated(staples), or serrated (Nails/cleats) to increase holding power. The fastener is used typically within the pocke

medallion/inlay: A pattern located at a focal point of the floor

medullary rays: Strips of parenchyma cells that extend radially from the core of the tree toward the bark. Vary in height from a few cells in some species to four or more inches in oaks. Rays serve primarily to store food and transport it horizontally in the tree. Respon

metal stain: A dark gray or black stain that can be caused in some woods when they are moist and touching ferrous metal.

metamerism: An apparent change in color when exposed to different wavelengths of light, the human perception of color. The phenomenon by which colors of specimens match when illuminated by the light of one spectral composition despite differences in spectral reflecta

methyl ethyl ketone: MEK a low boiling point, highly volatile flammable solvent with extremely good solubility for most vinyls, urethanes and other coatings.

micro bevel: A small( less than 1mm) 45 degree bevel used on the edges of prefinished wood flooring.

Mil: One thousandth of an inch.

mildew:

mildewcide: A chemical that inhibits the growth of mildew by killing the fungi that caused it.

milky: Having the appearance of milk or showing some whiteness, as when water is mixed with varnish or when dried transparent film starts to turn white from moisture.

mill run (run of the mill): Flooring that is milled from one grade of lumber, without being further separated by flooring grades.

milling defects: Blemishes produced in milling flooring such as chipped grain, torn grain, variations in milling, machine burns and mismatching.

millwork: Objects manufactured at a lumber mill or woodworking plant for use in the building construction industry- includes doors and windows and their trim, decorative interior trim, stairway components, fireplace mantels etc.(flooring not included).

mineral oil: A refined petroleum product with low volatility suitable for use as a wood finishing agent.

mineral spirits: A refined petroleum product with a high volatility suitable for some thinning operations. Paint thinner contains mineral spirits.

mineral stain: An olive to greenish-black or brown discoloration caused by regions of abnormal concentrations of mineral matter in some hardwoods. Minerals are brought up into the tree by the sap and stain occurs parallel to the pores.

mineral streak: Wood containing an accumulation of mineral matter introduced by sap flow, causing an unnatural color ranging from greenish brown to black.

mirrored polish finish: Requires several steps of wet sanding, mechanical buffing and polishing.

mitered corner: Corner pattern in which two perpendicular boards are joined by cutting the ends of each at an angle.

mixed media: A wood floor that also incorporates other materials such as slate, stone, ceramic tile, marble or metal.

moisture content: The weight of the water within a piece of lumber measured as a percentage of the weight of the oven dried weight of the wood. (weight of the water in the wood divided by the weight of the wood without any water) The amount of moisture in wood expressed a

moisture gradient: A progressive change (+ or -) in moisture content between the core and the surface of a piece of wood.

moisture meter: An electronic instrument for determining the moisture content of wood. There are two types of meter- one measures electrical resistance of the wood, the other measures the dielectric property of the wood.

mold:

mosaic parquet: A parquet floor made up of small solid pieces of wood ( slats) assembled as units that may consist of individual squares, units with slats arranged in single or double herringbone design or units or squares bordered with slats of the same or contrasting s

mottled: spots of different tones and colors placed next to one another to obtain blotchy or patch effects

moulder blank: A piece of lumber that has been planed and ripped to a size slightly larger than the finished size of the moulding to be run.

movement in service:

mud cracking: Paint film defect characterized by irregular broken network of cracks in the film.

muddy: lacking a bright, clear, transparent appearance, when speaking of clear materials. A muddy color is one having a trace of brown in it which takes away the purity or brightness of the color.

nail down installation: A method of installing in which wood planks are attached directly to the plywood sub-floor with nails driven either through the top of the surface layer (top or face nailing) or through the tongue of each board ( side nailing).

National Hardwood Lumber Association: NHLA- an organization founded to establish a uniform system of grading rules for the measurement and inspection of hardwood lumber.

natural: Lumber that is not color selected.

nested bundle: Flooring placed end to end continuously in runs with the run length equaling the nominal bundle length plus or minus 6”.

net lumber tally: Lumber measured in board feet after kiln drying- compare to gross lumber tally.

newel: The vertical post at the top and bottom of a staircase where the banister is supported.

NGR stains: Non-Grain raising stains are dye solutions that do not contain pigments. Spray application gives an overall transparent color to the wood, offering a high degree of clarity.

nitrocellulose: the basic ingredient of most common natural lacquers

nominal size: As applied to timber or lumber, the size by which it is known and sold in the market ( often differs from actual size) such as 2 x 4.

nondrying: Lacking the ability to absorb oxygen from the air or to change from a liquid to a solid state when spread out in a thin film. Mineral oils, castor oil, peanut oil, and coconut oil are examples of nondrying oils.

nonvolatile: Not subject to high rates of evaporation- describes portion of finishing agent that remains after any volatile portions have evaporated.

northern: Lumber logged from states that are adjacent to the Canadian border, from North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Northern Pennsylvania, Upper New York, New Hampshire and Maine.

northern hardwood forest type: A forest type common to the northeastern US, includes Sugar Maple, Red Maple, Yellow Birch, Hemlock and American Beech.

nosing: The rounded front edge of a stair tread that extends over the riser. Also-A hardwood moulding used to cover the outside corner of a step, milled to meet the hardwood floor in a horizontal plane, to meet the riser in a vertical plane. (Usually used on lan

nubs: Ane of the size grading of natural resins, being about the size of the end of the finger. Smaller than “Bold”, but larger than “seed” or “dust” grading.

number one common (#1 common): An NHLA grade for hardwood lumber primarily used in furniture and cabinet shops. Requires a clear face cutting yield of 2/3rds.

oak , gum, cypress forest type: A forest type common to the bottom lands of the southeastern US.

oak- hickory forest type: A forest type common to the northeastern us, includes Red and White Oak, Hickory, Yellow Poplar, and Red Maple.

oak-pine forest type: A forest type common in the southeastern US- includes Loblolly Pine, Virginia Pine, Red Aak and White Ash.

odor: That property of a substance that is perceptible by the sense of smell; scent or fragrance of a material.

off color: Not matching the color of a standard with which a material is being compared.

off grade: Lumber that does not conform to the grade it was represented as being.

ogee: A shape usually referring specifically to moulding with a double curve which in cross section looks like the letter “S” with the convex part above and the concave part below.

oil based: Finishing agents made with a drying oil (linseed, tung or soya) as the vehicle and the binder, and mineral spirits/paint thinner or naphtha as the thinner.

old growth: Wood from an old growth forest; A term biologists use to describe trees which have been growing approximately 200 years or longer. The lumber and flooring industry defines trees by lumber grades or characteristics, not age. Not to be confused with the ter

old growth forest: An old forest that has never been altered or harvested by humans generally 200+ years old.

opacity: The extent to which a material does not pass light the ability of a finishing agent to hide the surface to which it is applied.

opaque: Describes material that completely blocks the passage of light and cannot be seen through.

open coat: Sandpaper is either open coat or closed coat. Closed coat has grit over 100% of the backing paper. Open coat has grit uniformly spread over the backing paper to cover 40to 60% For hardwoods, open coat clogs less and has a more uniform scratch pattern.

open defects: Any irregularity, such as checks, splits, open joints, cracks, knot holes, or loose knots that interrupt the smooth continuity of the veneer.

open grain hardwood: Such as Elm, Oak, Ash and chestnut are “ring porous” species. These species have distinct figure and grain patterns.

open staircase: A staircase in which there are only treads and no risers.

orange peel: Pebbled film surface similar to the skin of an orange appearance. It is caused by too rapid drying before leveling takes place.

OSB- Oriented Strand Board: Commonly used for an underlayment or subfloor material. Strands tend to be oriented with their length aligned with the panel length. OSB is therefore stronger and stiffer when installed with the long axis across supports.

outfeed: The direction the work piece is fed out of a blade or cutter; the area into which a work piece is fed out of a blade or cutter.

oven dried weight: The weight of a piece of lumber that has been dried in an oven, generally at 220 degrees F until it is devoid of all water. This weight is used in the calculation of the moisture content of the wood.

oven dry wood: Wood dried in an oven until it has no more moisture.

overrun: A situation where the mill expects to achieve a certain number if board or lineal feet from a run, but obtain more than expected. Contrast with underrun.

overspray: The dry pebble-like surface caused when sprayed finish begins to dry in the air before it hits the surface. Sprayed finish which misses the area being finished and falls upon the surrounding surface.

over wood/under wood: A flooring condition in which there is perceived misalignment of the flooring surface, with some pieces raised above the adjacent pieces, leaving a slightly uneven surface. Also called lippage.

oxidation: A layer of oxidized material on the surface.

oxidization: A layer of metal oxide formed by the chemical reaction of oxygen with a surface.

oxidize: To react chemically with oxygen- rust and fire are examples.

PAD- partially air dried: Lumber that has been stickered and allowed to air dry but has a moisture content above 19%.

paint: A liquid compound composed of a mixture of pigment suspended in a liquid that is applied in a thin layer or multiple layers to a surface and subsequently dries into a hard, opaque, solid coating that protects and adds color to the object or surface to whi

paint grade: Fine grain woods that are free of knots, but will have mixed heartwood and sapwood in the face of the boards. Example: Poplar, Brown Soft Maple, Natural Birch.

pale: Not dark, lacking color intensity.

paper marking: Furniture and other finished products are often wrapped in paper for shipment. When the paper sticks to the finish in transit or leaves a mark in the finish, the article is said to be paper marked.

parenchyma: Tree cells that perform non-structural life process functions such as food storage and production of resins, gums, extractives and tylosies. May be axial parenchyma-vertical strands, or horizontal ray parenchyma.

parquet: A non-linear, geometric, patterned floor.

parquet floor square: Basically a “tile” composed of individual slats held in place by a mechanical fastening. A square may or may not possess tongues and grooves to interlock and is not necessarily “square” or regular in dimension.

paste filler: Ground inert solids specifically designed to fill pores or small cavities in wood as one step in the overall finishing process in order to advance the final build and smoothness of the finish.

patina: The color and texture that a material acquires on the surface as a result of a natural aging process Due to surface oxidation or exposure to sunlight (UV).

patterned floor: A non- linear floor.

pebbling: Similar to “orange peel” a roughened surface after spraying due to lack of flowing properties.

pecky: Pockets of disintegrated wood caused by localized decay, or wood area with color change related to localized injury such as bird peck. Pecky is sometimes considered a decorative effect, such as pecky cypress.

penetrating dyes: Deep color, fast drying stains often carried in solvents as a liquid or gel. Some water soluble versions are available.

penetrating finish: A finishing agent that is absorbed into the surface rather than forming a film. Tung oil, linseed oil and Danish oil.

penetrating oil: An oil based material designed to penetrate into the wood rather than form a film. It usually requires reapplication from time to time.

penetrating oil stains: Almost always a thin liquid mixture of oil and thinner with dye added for color.

percent solids: Percentage mass of non-liquid components in finishing agents.

PET: Precision end trimmed.

PH: A measure of the alkalinity or acidity of a solution. A value of seven is neutral, low numbers are acid, high numbers are alkaline. Strictly speaking, PH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

phloem: The live inner bark of the tree, through which sap flows down to the trunk.

photo-sensitive: The property of some wood species, which cause them to lighten or darken when exposed to light.

photosynthesis: The metabolic process in trees in which leaves convert water and carbon dioxide from the air into organic compounds using the energy from sunlight.

picking up: The softening and raising of underneath coatings by the solvent action of coatings applied over them.

pickling: A white or light colored pigment in either an oil or water vehicle. When wiped or brushed onto an open pore wood, the white stays in the pores and is usually wiped off the surface, either entirely or partially depending on the desired effect. Similar to a

picture framing (halo): Edges of room appear to be slightly different color from rest of room. Caused by improper grit sequence when sanding leaving edges either smoother or rougher than the center of the floor. Finish/Stain absorbs differently.

pigment: Fine ground particles (solids) usually titanium dioxide, provide hiding power, color, gloss, sand ability and sealing properties.

pigmented oil stain: Almost always an oil based liquid with pigments (not dyes) added.

pin holing: A defect caused by rapid solvent loss which creates tiny holes in the finish that penetrate to the underlying surface. Pinholes may or may not have raised edges.

pin knot: A small knot usually ¼ or ½” or less in diameter.

pin worn hole: In hardwood flooring, a small hole not more than 1/16” in diameter, made by a small wood boring insect.

pitch: Generally refers to resin- pine.

pitch pocket: An opening extending parallel to the annual growth rings containing resin. This is a defect and only occurs in softwoods that have resin canals.

pith: The small soft core occurring near the center of the tree trunk, branch, twig or log.

plain sawn: Most common and least expensive method of sawing. First saw cut is made on a tangent to the circumference and all cuts are parallel to the first. This provides widest boards and least waste. Most lumber produced is flat grained, with some vertical grained

plane: The process of removing material in thin shavings in order to make it flat.

planer: Is a stationary power tool with a long rotary cutting head mounted over and/or under a bed through which a rough cut plank is fed through the knives and is smoothed down by removing material from the thickness of the board to produce a flat, even surface

planer bite: The deeper than intended groove cut into the surface of a piece of wood by planer knives.

plank: Solid boards, usually ¾” thick and 3 to 8” wide designed to be installed in parallel rows. Flooring either solid or engineered that is manufactured to be installed either a sole width, random width, or equal linear pattern.

plasticity: Describes the ability of wood to return to it’s original shape after being deformed- usually by bending.

plasticizer migration: Movement of plasticizer in a coating or plastic to the surface or into an adjacent material such as an undercoat or substrate.

plough: A dado cut made along the grain to receive the edge or end thickness of another member to create a joint. A plough along the edge is also called an edge rabbet.

plugs: Square, round or butterfly inserts that are sometimes used to cover countersunk screws when installing plank, but may be used for purely decorative purposes.

plywood: A flat piece of construction material that is made up of three or more layers of wood and bonded with adhesive. Typically manufactured in sheets 4 x 8’.

polish: A finishing agent that provides a hard , smooth surface on an object, sometimes an top of another finishing agent.

polyester: A very high-solids- content coating consisting of two components that require special care in handling and spraying. Leaves a deep, wet looking, clear or colored finish. Limited reparability.

polyurethane: Usually a two component system that may have higher solids content than lacquer. Takes somewhat longer to dry than lacquer. A highly durable finish, which as a result is difficult to repair.

poly vinyl chloride-PVC: A tough white plastic used in plumbing. Also a plastic foam board used for exterior trim.

pop: A term used to describe the extreme way that wood figure will be caused to stand out strongly when a finishing agent is applied.

popping: A paint defect characterized by raised bumps in the surface. Caused by solvent vapor forming within the paint after it has begun to skim over. The resulting vapor pressure raises the paint surface at its weaker spots.

pore: The cross section of a hardwood vessel.

porosity: Presence of numerous minute voids in the cured material.

pot life: The useful life of a finish after mixing. Usually refers to finishes which are mixed with a curing agent just before application. Pot life may vary from minutes to hours depending on the chemicals involved.

pour: An application technique for putting finishing agents onto wood when a thick compound is applied such as acrylic. . May also be a precursor to other techniques like brushing.

powder post beetle: A small beetle that bores into both seasoned and unseasoned wood, leaving a small (1/16”) diameter hole in the wood. Holes are usually filled with dry crumbled wood fiber and frass.

powdering: The defect exhibited by certain short oil finishes by the formation of a powder when friction is applied, or the appearance of a powder on the film with age or due to any cause whatever.

precision end trimmed- PET: Lumber that has been precisely trimmed smooth on both ends.

prefinished: Wood product, the surface of which has been treated at the factory where it was produced, so that no sanding or finishing is required upon installation - A completely finished flooring that requires installation only.

preservative: A chemical that prevents decay in wood caused by fungi, excessive moisture, or insects. May be applied by dipping, brushing or pressure treatment.

pre-cat lacquer: Which stands for pre-catalyzed lacquer, is a lacquer that the catalyst is added to at the factory. The dry time is typically slower then post-catalyzed lacquers because the catalyst is not as powerful. There are also blocker solvents in pre-cat lacquer

primary colors: Three basic colors are red, yellow and blue. They are called primary because they cannot be produced by other colors, but can be used to create any other color.

primer: A specialized coating that provides a good bonding surface between the raw wood and the topcoat.

printing: The impression left in a film of dried finishing material after pressure has been removed.

progressive kiln: A dry kiln in which the lumber is not dried as a single unit but as several units the move progressively through the kiln.

puckering: The crinkling, shriveling, or wrinkling of a coat of finishing material upon drying.

puddling: the application of excessive heavy uneven coats of finishing material

pull outs: Small holes that are caused by rubbing dirt nibs or other defect out of a dried film of finishing material.

punky: A condition in wood in which it is very soft, light and with low density. Can be a natural condition of the wood or rot.

quarter measure: A reference to the thickness of rough lumber using quarter inch increments. 4/4 is 1” ; 5/4 is 1-1/4” 6/4 is 1-1/2” 8/4 is 2”; 10/4 is 2-1/2”; 12/4 is 3”.

quarter round: A moulding which resembles a cylinder cut into quarters lengthwise.

quarter sawn: Lumber is produced by first quartering the log, then sawing perpendicular to the growth rings. The angle of the annual ring tangent to the face of the piece is to be 45 to 90 degrees Quarters awing produces relatively narrow boards nearly all vertical-gra

rabbet: A plough cut that is made along the edge of a board, or a dado cut that is made across the end of a board.

radial shrinkage: Reduction in the size of a piece of lumber that occurs across the growth rings during drying.

radius: A border pattern designed to reflect a curved room element

rails: The horizontal parts of a door frame that connects two styles. Each door has a top rail and a bottom rail.

raised grain: A roughened or fuzzy condition on the face of the flooring in which the dense summer wood is raised above the softer springwood, but not torn or separated.

raised panel door: A door frame using a raised panel insert with vertical panel grain. This panel fits inside the frame.

rake: Pitch or angle. May refer to the angle at which the leading edge of the teeth are cut on a saw blade.

random widths and lengths: Containing a selection of the range of widths and lengths allowed in a grade of lumber.

reaction wood: Wood that has different characteristics than normal wood because it is formed during abnormal growth due to external stresses.

reclaimed lumber: Lumber that has been salvaged from an existing building for reuse.

red knot: A knot that will not fall out of its position in a sawn board.

reducer strip: A teardrop shaped moulding accessory for hardwood flooring, normally used at doorways , but sometimes at fireplaces and as a room divider. It is grooved on one edge and tapered or feathered on the other edge.

relative humidity: Ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the air to that which the air would hold at saturation at the same temperature.

resaw: The process of sawing lumber in half lengthwise, parallel to the wide face. Usually, but not always through the middle of the board, producing two equal sized boards, half the original thickness, but the same width and length.

resin:

resin bleed through: A condition in which resin, usually in a knot, migrates through a finishing agent. As in painted Knotty Pine.

retain: A representative liquid sample taken from a production batch which verifies the quality the customer receives.

rewet: The ability of a film to be dissolved by a solvent.

RGH: Short for “rough” a lumber description meaning not yet planed or surfaced.

ribbon stripe: A type of wood figure where there are stripes or ribbons of alternating lighter and darker color that run along the full length of the plank (with the grain) Due to interlocked grain.

rift sawn: Similar to quarter sawing with many of same advantages and limitations. Rift sawing accentuates the vertical grain and minimizes the flake effect common in quarter sawn oak. The angle of the cut is changed slightly (30 to 60 degrees)so that fewer saw cuts

ring porous: A group of hardwoods in which the pores are comparatively large at the beginning of each annual growth ring and decrease in size, more or less abruptly, toward the outer portion of the annual growth ring. The large pores are springwood and the smaller por

ring shake: Aform of shake in which the wood separates along the boundary between early growth and late growth.

rip: To create a rip cut, a rip cut.

rip cut: To cut parallel to the grain of wood, a cut that goes along the grain of wood.

ripping: Making a rip cut. Ripping a plank makes two planks, each narrower than the original, but with the same thickness and length.

rise: In stairs, the vertical distance from the surface of one of the treads in a staircase to the surface of the next tread.

riser: The vertical plank in a closed staircase- between the treads.

roll: An application technique for applying a finishing agent or adhesive using a roller.

ropy: Possessing a sticky or stringy consistency that will not allow the material to level or flow out smoothly after application.

rosette: A decorative square plate with a cutout circular design centered in the middle.

rot: Also called decay. The breakdown of cells due to attack on the lignin and cellulose of the wood by microorganisms.

rotary cut: A veneer production technique where the log is put on a huge lathe-like machine with a long blade that runs the length of the log and slices the wood in a continuous sheet.

rough: The board as it comes from the saw.

rough cut: To cut a work piece slightly oversize in thickness, width and/or length prior to milling to final dimensions.

roughing planer: Is a special type of planer. Its function is to plane rough or un-milled lumber to even thickness. Also see planer.

round edge lumber: Lumber that has its natural edge on both sides of the plank.

runs: The result of spraying a heavier coat on a vertical or near vertical surface than the viscosity of the finish will allow to hold without movement. When in close multiples- also called sag.

rustic: A wood flooring grade in which planks are allowed to exhibit a full range of natural character.; Permits all knots and other defects on the front and edges including color variation. Classification of character markings and coloration with regard to chara

S2S (Surface two sides): Planed on two faces, edges are rough.

S4S (Surface-4-Sides): Machined on all four sides.

saddle: A flat moulding with beveled or rounded edges designed to transition between two surfaces of the same height. Often used to cover expansion at doorways and typically attached to the surface of the flooring product.

sags: Irregularity of film thickness due to uneven flow.

sanding sealer: A specially formulated very hard finishing agent that is the first finishing coat applied to wood. The purpose is to seal and fill and be sanded before subsequent finishing coats are applied.

sandpaper: A tool consisting of an abrasive grit bonded to a backing. Can use grit materials from flint, garnet, aluminum oxide, r silicon carbide. Grit sizes are based on material passing through screens with x# holes per square inch. An 80grit will pass through a

sap: The mineral and nutrient bearing liquid that flows down the tree in the phloem from the leaves into the cambium to feed tree growth.

sap no defect:

sapwood: The sapwood carries water The living wood between the heartwood and the bark. Usually lighter in color than heartwood.

saw kerf: See kerf.

sawmill: A facility where logs are converted into lumber.

scalding: A term used to describe the cobwebby appearance of varnish when the topcoat has been rubbed through, showing the next coat of varnish underneath. The term also describes an aggravated form of flaking in which large pieces of the dried finishing material c

scratches: Slight incisions, breaks, tears or indentations on the surface caused by abrasive friction.

screeds/ sleepers: Usually a 2x 4 laid flat side down and attached to a concrete subfloor to provide a nailing surface for tongue and groove strip flooring or a wood subfloor.

scuff sanding: Sanding a finished surface very lightly in order to remove the shine or the roughness of the surface before applying the next coat.

sealers: Compounds that provide a sandable coating and a smooth surface for final topcoat application, provide system toughness and hold out, provide moisture resistance and contribute to build and clarity.

seasoned: Wood that has been dried by air or in a kiln to remove moisture so as to improve serviceability.

secondary colors: Any of the three colors formed by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors.

seeding: The formation of grains of undissolved resins in a varnish or lacquer or the formation of pigment aggregates from small individual particles in paint caused by severe chilling or improper thinners.

Sel: An abbreviation for the grade of select.

select: In hardwoods- one grade below FAS; in flooring- minimal occurrence of knots and mineral streaks but allows sapwood.

selected sizes: Wood that is ordered to specific widths, lengths or other specifications. Will cost more per board foot for selection, but will minimize waste and rejects and labor.

separation: The breaking up or segregation of two or more integral parts of a mixture into its component parts. In a varnish this may take the form of the resin, becoming insoluble in the other ingredients: in a paint or enamel, it may mean that a clear liquid portio

set to touch: The initial stage of drying when sufficient solvents have evaporated to allow the film to harden to where it can be touched lightly without adhering to the finger.

setting-up time: The time required for the initial stage of drying of a finishing material, whereby it has lost its ability to flow, but is still soft and plastic.

settling: The separation of a pigment or other solid ingredient from a coating material upon standing.

shading: A technique that can be used to either highlight contrast or create a more uniform appearance.

shake: Separation or weakness in wood fiber between or through annual rings. Not to be confused with checks or raised grain.

sheathing: The structural covering, usually sheets of plywood, placed over exterior studding, or rafters or subfloor of a structure.

sheen: Same as gloss.

shelf life: The period of time in which a material may normally be stored and still be in usable condition.

shellac: A wood finish extracted from a secretion of an Asian insect – the lac bug-sold as dry flakes which are then dissolved on denatured alcohol., fast drying and usually waxed for additional protection.

shellout/dishing: Of springwood- uneven wear between segments of annual rings.

shrinkage: The reduction in dimension or volume which takes place in timber when it is dried out, expressed as a percentage of the original dimensions or volume in a green piece. Shrinkage occurs in three directions: radial, tangential and longitudinal.

siding: The final layer applied to the outside of a structure.

silica: Sand inside the tree- tree takes silica from the soil and combines with oxygen to form silicon dioxide- dulling effect on tooling.

sill: The bottom of a window frame, the non- structural member at the bottom of a doorframe, the lowest horizontal member of the structural framework.

sinking in: A finishing material is said to sink in when a considerable amount of it is absorbed by the underneath surface.

slip tongue/ spline: A spline or small strip of wood used to reverse or change direction in installing standard tongue and groove flooring, or when making and assembling parquet flooring.

slot: A rectangular groove in wood.

SLR1E: Straight line ripped one edge to give one true glue edge.

SLR2E: Straight line ripped two edges, may not be perfectly parallel.

smoky: A finish is smoky when it has a cloudy look and is not bright, transparent and high in gloss.

SND: Sap no defect.

Soffit: The underside of the eaves running the length of the side of a house and from the wall to the fascia.

soft settling: Material will go back into solution with minimum agitation or stirring.

softwood: General term used to describe non-porous lumber produced from needle and or cone bearing trees (Conifer) regardless of hardness of wood.

soluble: Capable of being dissolved in a liquid.

solvent: A substance in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution. Finish solvents include paint and lacquer thinner, mineral spirits, gum turpentine, and denatured alcohol. Carries paint to the surface and then evaporates, leaving the film behind.

solvent blend: A blend of solvents to produce the desired properties of solvency and solvent evaporation.

sound cutting: A section that is free from rot, pith, shake, and wane. It will admit sound knots, bird pecks, stain, and pin holes.

sound knot: A knot that is solid across the surface, at least as hard as the surrounding wood, and shows no indication of decay.

sound wood: Wood that will create a useable floor and therefore not including soft wood due to rot, loose pieces that will fall out or splits throughout the piece.

southern: Lumber logged from a region that includes eastern Oklahoma, Eastern Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Western Kentucky, Western Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Eastern Virginia.

spalling: The chipping, fragmenting, or separation of a surface or surface coating.

spalted: Dead wood that has undergone a form of decay that looks like black ink lines of varying thickness and great variety.

split: Separations of wood fiber running parallel to the grain.

spontaneous combustion: The condition under which a chemical compound creates enough heat due to internal reactions that it will burst into flames with no external source of ignition.

spray: An application technique for putting a finishing agent or adhesive onto a wood surface.

spring angle: The angle measured outward from a wall to the back of a piece of crown moulding that is properly fitted to a wall.

spring wood: Inner part of annual ring, formed first. Characterized by cells having relatively large cavities and thin walls. Less dense than summer wood.

square edge: A flooring that is NOT tongue and grooved. Square edged strip flooring is face nailed when installed.

square footage: A unit of measurement to determine the total amount of flooring required for a given area. Calculate by multiplying the length times the width of the space.

square joint: Tongue & Grooved strip or plank flooring that are not eased or beveled.

squares: Parquet flooring units, usually composed of an equal number of slats.

squeeze out: The small bead of adhesive or individual drops of adhesive, pushed out of a joint under clamping pressure.

stable: Refers to wood that has been dried to equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere and which can be expected to not move unless there is significant change in atmospheric moisture content.

stain: A discoloration in or on flooring of any color other than the natural color of the species. For instance blue stain or brown stain.

stain bleed through: When tannins found in certain types of wood such as oak, cedar, migrates through the finishing agent causing discoloration.

stair stringer: This is an inclined member that supports the treads of a stair. The one on the open side of a staircase is an outer stringer, the one against the wall is a wall stringer.

stairs: A unit of steps from one floor of a building to another. The stairs and their support structure are called the staircase and the opening in the floor is called a stairwell.

standard lacquer: A nitrocellulose based coating, usually without any additives, that dries when by solvent evaporation. Generally easy to repair.

standing bead: A bead which is wholly raised above the surrounding wood.

star checked knot: A knot having radial checks from its center outwards.

star shake: A type of wood shake which consists of a group of splits running outward from the pith also called heart shake.

starved joint: A joint that is poorly bonded because not enough glue was applied.

steamed: A process (caramelization) in which certain woods (primarily walnut) are steamed in vats for the purpose of darkening the light colored sapwood to blend with the dark colored heartwood.

sticker: A narrow strip of wood that is used to separate planks that are drying so as to allow airflow. Typical 1” wide x ¾ thick. Usually placed 12 to 18” apart and placed directly over any support blocks.

sticker stain: Light brown marks that appear on the wood flooring surface across the width of the strip, measure ¾ to 1” wide and occur every 12 to 24” across the face of the floor. Caused by stacking sticks on rough lumber during air/kiln drying. Sticker stain allowe

sticker stripe: A strip of wood that has a slightly different color than the surrounding area of the board because that portion was covered from air and light by a drying sticker whereas the surrounding wood was not. Sticker stripe can be lighter or darker. Not the same

sticking: The pattern machined on the inside edge of rails and stiles. It covers the panels and holds them in place.

stiles: The outside vertical pieces of a door frame, with stile sticking machined on each edge. Each door frame will have one left stile and one right stile.

story stick: A way to accurately move dimensions from a template to a work piece. This is normally a flat thin piece of wood on which is marked various points at which a work piece needs to be worked in some way.

straight line rip: Produces a perfectly straight edge ready for gluing.

streaks, mineral: Natural discoloration in wood due to its constituents.

stress: Force per unit area. Measured in ponds per square inch.(PSI)

striking in: The defect produced by a coat of finishing material softening and partially penetrating an underneath coating.

strip flooring: Solid boards or engineered boards to be installed in parallel rows now produced in thicknesses of ½”, ¾” and 33/32” and these widths 1-1/2”, 2”, 2-1/4” and occasionally 3-1/4”. These strips are t & G and end matched. They are for nail down installation di

stripping: Removing old paint or other finishing agents by using a chemical paint remover, solvent, sandpaper, heat gun, scraping tools or a combination.

subflooring: A layer of plywood which rests on floor joists. Sometimes there will be a layer of underlayment over the subflooring and beneath the finished floor.

substrate: Any surface to which a coating is applied.

summer wood: Outer part of annual ring formed later in the growing season, characterized by cells with smaller cavities and thicker walls. More dense than spring wood.

surface: The outside or exterior boundary of any substance. One is said to surface the work when it is rubbed or sanded to a smooth, level plane.

surface check: A check that occurs on the wood surface as a drying defect and will extend to varying depths into the wood.

surface drying: When a coating dries on top but remains relatively soft on the bottom, it is said to surface dry.

surface planer: See planer.

surface preparation: Any activity used to prepare a surface for finishing. This includes cleaning, grain raising, sanding, filling and priming.

suspension: A liquid that contains particulate matter that is not dissolved, but just spread throughout the liquid.

sweating: When a coating becomes more or less glossy again after being dull rubbed, it is said to sweat. Usually it is caused by rubbing the coating before it is sufficiently dry

tack free: The condition when a film of finishing material has reached the point that the surface can be touched lightly without the sensation of stickiness.

tacky: Highly viscous and sticky: the state of an adhesive or finishing agent after it has been applied but before it is totally cured.

tally: A record of the number of pieces and footage by grade.

tannin: A complex chemical compound naturally occurring in some wood.

tapered: Describes a n object that goes from one dimension to a smaller dimension along the length.

tearout: Broken or torn fibers that occur as the blade or tool exits a cut.

template: A pattern to guide the cutting of a shape to assure very accurate cuts.

tenon: The tongue or tab, part of a cope cut that fits into the mortise (groove) of the door frame joint.

tension wood: A type of reaction wood that most typically forms in hardwood trees on the upper side of bent tree. Prone to warping and fuzzy surface.

thermoplastic: The property of softening when heated and hardening upon cooling, as contrasted to thermosetting.

thermosetting: The term applies to resins which become hard after heating and cannot be re-softened.

thin kerf: Refers to a saw blade with a reduced kerf.

thickness planer: See planer.

thinner: A substance, usually a solvent used to dilute and reduce the viscosity of a finishing agent to make it easier to spread and create a more even coating.

thixotropy: The tendency for the viscosity of a liquid to be shear-rate dependent. When the liquid is rapidly shaken, brushed or otherwise mechanically disturbed, the viscosity decreases rapidly. Thixotropic behavior is the result of molecules or particles in the liq

tight knot: A knot that is so fixed by growth or position that it will firmly retain its place in the piece.

toner: Transparent or semitransparent colors used to even the tone of the wood.

tongue & groove (T & G): In strip, plank and parquet flooring, A tongue is milled on one side of the plank and a groove is milled on the opposite edge for installation purposes. As the flooring is installed the tongue of each plank is engaged with the groove on the adjacent plank

top coat: The final protective film of a finish system. There are various topcoats with different properties.

translucent: Describes material that allows some light to pass through but which is not clear enough to see through.

transparent: Describes material that allows light to pass through completely; clear enough to see through.

tread: The horizontal part of a stair step, the part that is stepped on.

trim: The finish materials in a building, such as mouldings, applied around openings( window trim, door trim) or at the floor and ceiling of rooms(baseboard, shoe moulding, cornice and other).

twist: Spiral warping of a board. The board is no longer flat.

tylosies: A waterproof, foam like substance that forms in the pores of some species of wood and blocks them, thus impeding or preventing the movement of moisture through the pores.- common in White Oak.

undercoat: The first coat of finishing agent applied to a surface after preparation.

undercut: Cuts made that curve back under a projecting portion of a piece.

underrun: The situation where a mill expects to achieve a certain footage from a run and obtains less than expected.

Underwriters Laboratory: An independent, not for profit product safety testing and certification organization.

unfinished: A wood product that still has to be sanded and have finish applied.

uniform color: Lumber that is kiln dried, graded, surfaced, and then sorted for color so that the boards in one shipment are all in the same color tone family.

unsound knot: A knot that has cracks or voids or is noticeably softer than surrounding wood.

unsurfaced: Rough sawn.

urban wood: Used pallets, clean construction wood, repurposed lumber, flooring etc.

urethane: An elastic, petroleum based varnish commonly used to prefinish products at the factory.

UV Curing: A method of curing specially formulated top coats as ultra violet light causes quick and complete cross linking of the material.

vapor retarder: A material with a high resistance to vapor movement , such as foil, plastic film, or specially coated paper having a permeance rating of 1 perm or less, that is used to control condensation or prevent migration of moisture. Through floor, wall or ceiling

varnish: An oil based finish used to coat a surface with a hard glossy film.

v-block: A border element designed to allow adjustments of the pattern to fit at the corners.

veneer: A thin sheet of wood, rotary cut, sliced or sawn from a log or flitch from 1/100” up to ¼”.

veneer checking: Normally expressed in longitudinal cracks in veneer.

veneer log: A high quality log, of a desirable species suitable for conversion to veneer. Veneer logs are large, straight, minimum taper, and free of defects. Less than 5% of logs are veneer quality.

vertical grain: A way of describing quarter sawn planks that emphasizes the fact that the grain runs perpendicular to the face.

v-groove: Narrow and shallow “V” or “U” shaped channels on the face to make the appearance of V- joint planking.

vintage: Classification of character markings and coloration with regard to antique flooring . Usually milled from reclaimed boards or beams, this grade of flooring will contain tight but possibly open knots, nail & spike holes, cracks up to 1/8” in width, worm ho

vinyl lacquers: Catalyzed lacquers made with vinyl resin rather than nitrocellulose base.

viscosity meter: A device for measuring the flow rate of a fluid. Most common are ford cup and Zhan cup.

viscosity: The property of a fluid which causes it to resist flowing. It is the internal friction of the movement of molecules against each other. Viscosity is the measure of combined effects of cohesion and adhesion. It is one of the most important physical propert

v-joint: A term used in plank flooring to indicate that the edges are beveled.

volatile: Characteristic of some chemicals whereby they readily evaporate at normal temperature and pressure.

volatile organic compound - VOC: Any carbon compound that evaporates under normal conditions.

volute: A spiral shaped handrail extension at the bottom of the staircase.

water jet saw: Is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using a very high pressure stream of water. The stream of water is often referred to as a jet. The jet may or may not also have an abrasive material such as garnet added to aid in the

WHAD: Means Worm Holes A Defect.

Worm Holes A Defect: Refers to a grade of lumber known as Worm Holes a Defect, as the name implies any worm holes in the material are considered defects.

WHND: Means Worm Holes No Defect.

Worm Holes No Defect: Refers to a Grade of lumber known as Worm Holes No Defect, as the name implies worm holes are not considered a defect. Typically WHND is either used where the material is not exposed such as furniture frames, or it is used for an aesthetic appearance whe

wainscoting: The lower section of a wall finish below the chair rail.

wane: The edge of a sawn board where the bark remains or is missing.

warping: Any distortion of a piece of wood from its true plane that may occur in seasoning. Bow, cup, twist.

wash coats: A thin solution of lacquer or other material applied over the stain to enrich it and to stiffen the fibers of the wood so they may be easily sanded. In special cases a wash coat is applied to the bare wood to prevent succeeding coats from discoloring it.

water based stain: Are made by adding hot water to universal tinting colors, then diluting the solution to the desired strength with cold water. They provide good grain clarity, but raise the grain and are slow to dry.

water spotting: The occurrence of whitish blemishes on a finish film in areas where water droplets have soaked into the film.

watt: A measurement of electrical power computed by multiplying volts times amps.

wave marks: Two or more irregularities in a floor occurring along the direction of travel of the floor sander. Generally 1 to 3” from peak to peak. Caused by imperfections already present in the floor that are transferred through the wheels of the big sanding machine

weathering: Mechanical and or chemical disintegration and discoloring of the surface of wood in exterior use, caused by exposure to light, action of sand and dust carried by the wind, and the alternate shrinking and swelling of surface fibers with the continual varia

western: Lumber that is logged from a region that includes all states west of line from central North Dakota to Central Texas.

wet film thickness: The thickness of a finishing agent immediately after application, before it begins to dry.

white: Lumber that has been selected to have all sapwood on the face of the boards.

white wood: Raw wood freshly machined.

whitening: A condition brought about in the dried film of a coating material by the absorption of moisture.

wipe: Work in progress.

wiping stains: Thin pastes or thick liquids with pigment suspended in a solvent vehicle. Applied and wiped with a cloth to remove excess stain.

wire brushing: A method for imparting an artificial texture or distressed appearance to the surface of hardwood flooring.

worm holes: Voids in the wood caused by the burrowing action of certain wood infesting worms, which do not survive the kiln drying process.

xylem: The cellular tissue inside a tree’s bark, including both heartwood and sapwood.

yellowing: The yellowing effect is often a result of using amber binders or vehicles for the stains and/or topcoats. To avoid yellowing, specify “non-yellowing” finishing materials. The addition of a UV inhibitor will slow down, but will not prevent the gradual colo

Zahn Cup: A widely used brand of viscosity cup used to measure the flow rate of finishing agents. A metal cup with a hole in the bottom and one measures the time it takes for a given volume to flow out.