back: The poorer quality side of the two wide surfaces of a plank or panel as opposed to the face which is the better quality of the two. The inward- directed wide surface of a plank or panel when in service.

backing board: The board remaining on the faceplate of a veneer slicing machine after the veneer is all sliced off. These are usually thin boards ½ to ¾” thick- also called backer boards.

baking: Drying a coating material by using artificial heat. Baking temperature usually 160 to 500F. Temperature in 110 to 150F usually referred to “forced drying”.

balanced construction: Aconstruction such that the forces induced by uniformly distributed changes in moisture content will not cause warping. Ex: alternating grain direction of plys in plywood created balanced construction.

baluster: A spindle used as part of the support rail of a staircase.

balustrade: The protective barrier alongside a staircase or landing. Composed of spindles (balusters) topped by a banister and connected on each end to a newel .

bandsaw: A saw that uses a continuous loop of flexible steel with teeth that runs on wheels.

bandsawn: Refers to lumber that has been cut by a bandsaw and therefore has straight sawtooth marks perpendicular to the long dimension on the face.

banister: A handrail that runs along the top of the balusters of a staircase and is supported on both ends by newels.

barber pole: An effect in book matching of veneers resulting from tight and loose sides of veneers causing different light reflections when finished.

bark: The outermost protective layer of a tree.

bark pocket: An isolated area in wood, largely made up of bark that has grown into the sapwood of a tree. Can be caused by irregular growth or damage. Also called bark inclusion.

barrier coat: A layer of finishing agent used to isolate layers from each other or from the surface to which they are applied so as to increase adhesion, insure compatibility, or isolate contamination. Also called tie coat.

base: The lowest part of a tree up to 3 feet above ground. The term also refers to baseboards.

base shoe: A moulding designed to be attached to the base moulding to cover the expansion space. Similar to a quarter round in profile.

baseboard: Also called base moulding, skirting or mopboard, the moulding that covers and protects the joint between an interior wall surface and the floor. If the base moulding doesn’t cover the expansion space between the floor and the wall, another piece of mouldi

bastard sawn: Lumber (primarily in hardwoods) in which the annual rings make the angles of 30 to 60 degrees with the surface of the piece. Also called rift sawn.

batch: Industrial unit or quantity of production used in one complete operation.

bead: A semi-circular piece of moulding; a small rounded raised profile.

bead board: Panels that have a series of various shapes or indentations running vertically so that the panel appears to be an installation of individual planks.

bed: Generally means some flat surface that is the base of the operation. The flat part of a moulder that the wood rides on is called the bed.

belt sander: A form of power sander that used a continuous loop of sandpaper.

Bernard (vortex) cell: Hexagon shaped cell that is produced by the vortex action of solvent evaporation in thin films.

bevel: A surface that meets another at an angle other than a right angle, to cut edges or ends at an angle, but not a right angle- see also chamfer.

beveled edge: The chamfered or beveled edge of wood flooring, plank, block & parquet. Other than at a right angle.

Biltmore stick: A yardstick like device used to measure the DBH of a standing tree and also to estimate the lumber yield of a tree. Also called a cruiser stick.

binder: The part of the coating that does not evaporate. It holds the pigment particles together and stays on the surface and forms the film of the finish. This is one of the non-volatile ingredients.

bird peck: A patch of distorted grain and/or coloring resulting from birds pecking living trees, sometimes containing ingrown bark or insect residue.

bird’s eye: Small decorative circular figure, most common in hard maple lumber. Caused by local fiber distortions.

black knot: Synonymous with encased; a knot that is loose and may fall out.

blade: The portion of a tool that contains a cutting edge.

blade guard: The shroud that covers the blade to prevent the operator from accidentally placing his hands in contact with the spinning blade. This device also prevents small pieces from being thrown back out towards the operator.

blank: A piece of wood that has been brought into roughly the size and shape of the finished product.

blanker: See planer or roughing planer.

bleaching: The chemical process used to remove color or whiten solid wood. Can be used to lighten extremely dark wood or whiten a lighter colored wood.

bleeding: When the substance such as natural wood resin permeates and stains the outer surface of a subsequent coating- Tannin bleed; When the color of one coating material migrates up through the finishing layer to the succeeding coat imparting some of its charact

blemish: Anything marring the appearance of lumber.

blistering: Formation of bubbles on the surface of a coating. Caused by trapping air or vapors beneath the surface.

block resistance: The ability of a finishing agent to resist blocking.

blocking: The tendency of a finishing agent to adhere to itself on another freshly coated surface or to other substrates. Causes windows to bind, doors to stick, damage to finished surfaces when contacted before coating fully cures.

bloom: A bluish cast which forms on the surface of some films. Blooming is caused by a deposition of a thin film of foreign material such as smoke, dust or oil or by the exudation of a component of the paint film.

blotch: An area on the surface of the wood that may have adsorbed more of a finishing agent than the surrounding area. Such a surface contrast is usually considered unattractive.

blue stain: Also called sapstain. This is caused by a fungus that eats nutrients primarily found in the sap, so it usually occurs in the sapwood and not the heartwood. The color is the fungus itself rather than a chemically induced change in the color of the sapwood

blunting effect: The degree to which a given species of wood reduces the sharpness of the cutting edge of tools.

blushing: The whitish, cloudlike haze that occurs in fast drying finishes, especially lacquer when sprayed in very humid conditions. Blushing is most often due to moisture (water vapor) trapped in the film or to bits of resin precipitating out of solution. There is

board & batten: A type of exterior siding that has alternating wide boards and narrow wooden strips called battens covering the seams between the boards.

board foot: A unit of volume measurement of lumber represented by a board 1 foot long x 12 inches wide by 1 inch thick or it’s cubic equivalent(144 cubic inches). A board foot is 1/12 of a cubic foot. 1” thick x 12” wide x 12” long. Lumber less than 1” thick is cons

body: The consistency or thickness/viscosity of a finishing agent while still in liquid form.

bole: The trunk of a tree from the ground to the first branch. That portion of a tree that is most useful for producing lumber.

bond: The adhesion of or ability of two items to stick to one another by adhesive, or could refer to a finishing agent ability to stick to a surface.

bond strength: The force required to break the adhesive assembly, with failure occurring in or near the plane of the bond.

book matching: The matching of resawn boards or veneer sheets that mimics the opening of a book. That is you have a board that has been resawn down its length and they are pressed against each other and you leave the bottom edges touching and open the top pair of edges

border: Usually a pattern of floor surrounding a room or at a transition area, outside the field.

bore: The hole for the arbor in a saw blade or cutting tool.

botanical name: The scientific name for a wood. The name consists of a botanical genus, capitalized, followed by a specific epithet, in lower case, and the pair taken together is the name of the species- ex: white oak is called Quercus alb.

boule: The entire log, cut through and through and stacked in the same order that the planks were in the tree.

bounce back: The rebound of an atomized coating, especially when applied by air spray methods. The air pressure used to atomize the coating ounces off the surface being sprayed keeping the material from attaching to the surface and is lost as overspray.

bound water: Also called bound moisture. Water found within the cell wall of wood. Compare/contrast to free water.

bow: A drying defect in which the distortion in a board deviates from flatness down the length of a board (eyebrow); the distortion of lumber in which there is a deviation in a direction perpendicular to the flat face, from a straight line from end to end of t

branch: An extension growing out from the trunk of a tree and containing other branches, twigs and leaves.

brashness: An abnormal condition of wood characterized by low resistance to shock and by abrupt and complete failure across the grain without splintering.- similar to brittleness in other materials. due to extreme growth rate, exposure to high temperatures, or decay

bridging: The ability of finishing material to cover a crack, void or small gap without a break in the film, usually resulting in an air pocket under the dried film.

brittleness: The tendency of a dried paint or clear film to crack or flake when bent or scratched, rather than stretching or bending.

broad leaved: Refers to gymnosperm also known as hardwood trees.

brown stain: A wood stain caused by kiln drying due to oxidization on or just below the surface of the wood. Most likely to occur when fresh, unseasoned lumber is stacked and stored for several days during warm or humid weather prior to kiln drying.- likely when high

bruise: To make a dent in wood by striking it with a hard object such as a hammer.

brush: a group of animal hairs or synthetic fibers bound together and used to apply finishing agents and adhesives to wood surfaces. ; an application technique for putting finishing agents onto wood

brushability: the ease with which a finishing agent can be applied with a brush

bubbling: the appearance of bubbles in the film while the material is being applied. Caused by any condition that causes air, vapors or gasses to be trapped in the film while it is soft but after it has hardened sufficiently to prevent the gas from escaping

buckling: Excessive expansion causing the wood flooring to release from the subfloor. Caused by excessive jobsite moisture (airborne, subfloor or flooding) frequently aggravated by improper installation techniques. May require complete replacement after mitigating

buff: To rub a surface with a polishing device in order to bring it to a bright shiny finish.

build: The wet or dry thickness of a film.

bull nose: the radius applied to the front edge of a step

bundled flooring: consists of flooring pieces that range from 6 In plus or minus the nominal length of the bundle. A run is a single piece of flooring.

burl: A swirl or twist of the grain of the wood that usually occurs near a knot but doesn’t contain a knot.

butt joint: A joint formed by abutting the squared edges of two pieces.