Glossary

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D2S: Dressed 2 sides- same as S2S - surfaced 2 sides.

D4S: Dressed 4 sides- same as S4S - surfaced 4 sides.

dado: A rectangular slot cut across the face of a plank, perpendicular to the grain, so that an end or edge of another plank can be inserted to form a joint. If the cut is made at the end of a board, it is called a rabbet.

Danish oil: A general name for any number of wipe on coatings based on Tung or linseed oil, with solvents and resins added to enhance both drying and performance.

dark: Lumber that is selected for all heartwood on the face of the board

debark: To remove the bark from trees or logs.

decay: Advanced decay-the older stage of decay in which destruction is readily recognized by soft, pitted or crumbly areas. Incipient decay indicated early signs indicated by slight discoloration or bleaching of wood. Same as rot.

decay resistance: The extent to which wood can resist the things that cause decay.

decayed knot: A knot, that due to decay is softer than the surrounding wood.

deciduous: The term given to broad leaf trees which shed leaves annually. Most hardwood trees.

decking: Commonly meant to mean an outdoor floor.

defects: A flaw in the wood affecting the appearance, or structural strength and thus the value. Common defects include knots, worm holes, bird pecks, (Bark pockets), wane, pitch, checks, unsound burls, shake, splits, drying defects, machine defects.

deformed fasteners: Fasteners in which the sides are not smooth and the head shape may be irregular. Examples are ring shank and screw shank nails.

degrade: Wood that is not of the grade being inspected. Also called outs.

dehumidification: The process of removing moisture from the air.

delamination: Separation of the plies of plywood or laminated surfaces from the core through failure of the adhesive the separation of layers in an engineered product, through failure within the adhesive, wear layer and substructure.

demarcation: A term relating to the point of separation of two parts- The boundary between heartwood and sapwood.

denatured alcohol: Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) with small quantities of chemical added to render it unfit for drinking- used as fuel and as a solvent in shellac and some dyes.

dendochronology: A scientific method of dating objects based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings.

density: A measure of mass per unit volume- usually expressed in pounds per cubic foot or kilograms per cubic meter

dent: Crushed spot in the wood due to dropped objects, metal tips on furniture, high heels.

depth of finish: A desirable visual impression which is illustrated by viewing a thick film of varnish which exhibits excellent smoothness or evenness.

dew point: The temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and the vapor begins to condense into liquid form on surfaces.

dewaxed shellac: Shellac that has had removed from it the natural small amount of wax that the lac bugs produce. Not required if it is the only finish agent used on a surface, but if used as an undercoat or barrier coat, dewaxed required to allow other finishing agents to

diagonal: At an angle less than 90degrees.

diffuse porous woods: Certain hardwoods in which the pores tend to be uniform in size and distribution throughout each annual ring or to decease slightly in size and gradually toward the outer border of the annual growth ring. (Ex Hard Maple) contrast to ring porous.

dimension lumber: Lumber that is cut to standard commercial sizes for use in the construction industry. Sold in nominal sizes- example: 1 x 6 is 3/4 x 5-1/2".

dimensional stability: The ability to maintain the original intended dimensions when influenced by a foreign substance. Wood is hygroscopic and is not dimensionally stable with changes in moisture content below the fiber saturation point.

dip: An application technique for putting finishing agents on a wood surface.

dirty: Not clean, containing foreign matter, usually of a finely divided solid nature. A dirty color is one that is muddy or not clear and bright.

discoloration: An unexpected and undesirable change in the color of wood. Could be caused by stains, chemical reactions or unexpected reactions with finishing agents or adhesives.

dish out: Area on the wood floor where softer parts of wood appear to have been sanded or hollowed out more than other areas. Evident in wood species that exhibit pronounced spring and summer wood grain patterns.

dissolve: To cause to change in a liquid called a solvent, from a solid to a matter that becomes part of a liquid.

distilled water: Water that has been purified by vaporizing the liquid, collecting the vapor, and then condensing it back to a liquid. This removes contaminants.

distinctness of image: The sharpness with which image outlines are reflected by the surface of an object.

distressed: Classification of character markings and coloration with regard to antique flooring. Usually milled from reclaimed boards and beams, this grade of flooring will contain tight and possibly open knots, nail and spike holes, cracks up to 1/8” wide, worm hole

distressing: May be of a mechanical or chemical nature to give special effects.

domestic: Of local origin, any wood that is grown in the USA.

dowel: A wooden cylinder.

drawer fronts: Mounted onto the front of a cabinet drawer, but can be made as Slab drawer fronts, or as smaller versions of a door. Can be either flat panel or raised panel, with the grain running horizontally.

dress: To smooth over and bring to a straight or flat condition.

dressed lumber: Lumber that has been dressed by a smoothing process such as a planer or jointer on at least one face or edge.

dressed size: This is the actual size or nominal size.

drips: The small drops of material which collect on the edge of dipped work.

dry fit: Temporarily assembling the separate pieces of a woodworking assembly without adhesive or permanent fasteners to check for accuracy and fit.

dry lumber: Lumber that has had its moisture content reduced by air drying or kiln drying to the point where it can be put into service. For softwoods dry means below 19% moisture content. In hardwoods below 10% is generally accepted (6-8% for millwork).

dry rot: The condition of wood that has undergone brown rot in a moist condition but which is now dry. The cell structure of the wood is broken down.

dry spray: Condition caused by the partial drying of the liquid coating prior to reaching the surface to be coated. The pint particles do not flow out to form a smooth film.

dry to pack: The stage of solidification of an applied film of finishing material when it is sufficiently hard that the coated article can be packaged for shipment.

dry to recoat: The time required for a cured film to dry prior to the application of the second coat.

dry to rub: That stage of solidification of an applied film of finishing material when it can be rubbed with an abrasive and a lubricant without softening appreciably or “picking up” on the rubbing pad.

dry to sand: That stage of solidification of an applied film of finishing material when it can be sanded without undue softening, sticking or clogging the sandpaper.

dry to tack free: A stage at which the coating film will form a skin to which dust will not adhere.

dry to touch: the state of dry at which a coating film will not transfer onto an item touched lightly against it.

drying: The process of removing the moisture from green wood to improve its workability and to stabilize it so that it will not change size/shape when put into service. Also- the act of changing from a liquid film to a solid film by the evaporation of solvents, o

drying defect: An irregularity that develops during the drying process that changes the value, appearance, strength, durability and general utility. Most common drying defects are: case hardening, checks, chemical stain, collapse, honeycomb, warp: bow-crook-cup-twist.

drying schedule: A sequence of wood drying conditions generally done in a kiln which results in the gradual decrease in moisture content of the wood- also called kiln schedule.

drying time: Time allotted for an applied coating film to reach a set stage of solidification or hardness.

drywall: Interior covering material(such as gypsum board, hardboard, or plywood) that is applied in large sheets or panels.

dull: Lacking brightness, clearness of luster; lack of sharpness on an edge.

dulling: Reduction of sharpness on a cutting edge; a loss of gloss or sheen on the surface of a finishing agent.

durability: The ability of the wood species or finish to withstand the conditions or destructive agents with which it comes into contact with in actual usage, without an appreciable change in appearance or other important properties; the ability of wood to resist att

dust: Small particles of solid matter. Also a grading or size of natural resin.

dust nibs: The surface defect in a dried finishing agent caused by small particles settling on the surface of the finish as it was drying, before the film has formed on the surface- usually repaired by sanding or rubbing out.

dwell time: Length or amount of time.

dye: Any type of coloring agent that soaks into the fibers of the wood. It is used to evenly color wood before applying a finishing agent. Dyes have extremely small pigment particles that soak into the molecular structure of the wood.