Glossary

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face: The better quality side of the two wide surfaces of a plank, as opposed to the back which is the lesser quality of the two. The outward directed wide surface of a plank when it is in service.

face checking: Partial separation of wood fibers parallel to the grain caused by stress in weathering or seasoning.

face frame: A flat frame attached to the front of a cabinet.

face grain: The wood grain as you look onto the face of a board or panel.

face nailing: Inserting a nail directly into the face of a plank.

fading: The loss of color due to exposure to light, heat or other destructive agents.

FAS one face: The NHLA grade requires and fast face on the best side of the board and the back or poor side of the board grading #1 Common or better.

FAS- First and Seconds: The top grade of hardwoods recognized by the National Hardwood Lumber Association.

fastener: A method or device used to attach wood flooring to a subfloor.

feature strip or accent strip: Usually a single board surrounding a room or at a transition area- often in another species and a contrasting color from the wood used in the field.

feed: To push a work piece in a controlled manner toward a moving blade, cutter belt or other moving tool part in some way that shapes the work piece.

fiber: the smallest diameter tubular elements in hardwoods. They have thick walls and closed ends and do not carry nutrients.

fiber saturation point: The stage in drying or wetting wood at which the cell walls are saturated with water and the cell cavities are free from water. Usually at approx. 30% moisture content based on oven dry weight. When wood drops below, it begins to shrink.

fiberboard: A broad generic term inclusive of sheet materials of widely varying densities manufactured of refined or partially refined wood or other vegetable fibers. Bonding agents and other materials may be added to increase strength, resistance to moisture, fire o

fiddleback: Curly figure in wood with interlocked grain causing light to be reflected differently at different portions of the grain. Curls are tight and uniform generally running perpendicular to the grain and across the entire width of the board.

field: The main area of the floor.

figure: Inherent markings, designs or configurations on the surface of the wood produced by annual growth rings, rays, knots and deviations from regular grain such as curly, interlocked and wavy as well irregular color.

filler: Any substrate used to fill character markings and irregularities in sanded flooring before applying finish coatings used to advance the final build and smoothness of the finish. Filler may be neutral or contrasting to accent the pores. The use of filler a

fillets: The small pieces used to form finger-block parquet patterns. Also called fingers or slats.

film build: The dry film thickness characteristic of a coat.

finger- block parquet: Parquet pattern made from small strips of wood, typically quarter sawn bound together.

finish: A chemical that is applied to a wood surface so as to bring out the grain and/or protect the wood from conditions such as mechanical wear, up rays, and moisture.

finish size: Measurements that reflect the actual completed size of a product.

finishing: The final treatment of a work piece after the tool work has been completed. This can include filling, sanding, applying finis, and polishing.

finishing agent: A chemical compound suitable for covering wood in a permanent, attractive and protective way, Finishing agents include: acrylic, epoxy, lacquer, paint, polyurethane, shellac, stain, urethane, varnish, wax, etc.

fire resistance: The property of a material or assembly to withstand fire or give protection from it.

fire retardant: A chemical or preparation of chemicals used to reduce flammability or to retard spread of fire over a surface.

first European quality: FEQ - the top grade for wood purchased in Europe. This grade is superior to FAS grade.

fisheye: Asurface depression or crater in the wet finish film. Fisheyes are caused by repulsion of the wet finish by a surface contaminate such as oil or silicone materials. The depression may or may not reveal the surface under the finish.

flag: A heavy dark mineral streak shaped like a banner.

flag worn hole: One or more wormholes surrounded by a mineral streak.

flaking: The phenomenon of the detachment of small pieces of dried film from underneath the surface.

flame spread: The propagation of a flame away from the source of ignition across the surface of a liquid or a solid or through the volume of a gaseous mixture.

flammability: The ease with which a substance can be set on fire.

flammable: Describes any material that will catch fire easily and continue to burn- having a flash point less than 100 degrees fare height.

flash off time: Time which must be allowed after the application of a paint film before baking in order that the initial solvents are released, which prevents bubbling.

flash point: The temperature at which a material will ignite.

flat panel: Typically a ¼” thick panel made from solid wood, plywood or veneers.

flat sawn: Most common and least expensive method of sawing. First saw cut is made on a tangent to the circumference and all cuts are parallel to the first. This provides widest boards and least waste. Most lumber produced is flat grained, with some vertical grained

flecks: The wide irregular, conspicuous figure in quarter sawn oak flooring.

floating floor: A floor that does not need to be nailed or glued down to the subfloor. Typically the flooring panels are connected together by adhesive or mechanical connectors.

flood: The excessive application of considerably more finishing material than is necessary to secure satisfactory results.

flooding: The change in color of a pigmented finishing material from that exhibited at the time of application to that shown, in the dried film. Flooding is due to a uniform color float by which one tone of the color becomes stronger as the film dries.

floor board: A board, generally finished with a tongue and groove, fixed to the floor joists or subflooring to provide a flooring surface.

flooring: A material used to create a floor, generally mounted on top of subflooring.

flow: The characteristic of a coating which allows it to level or spread into a smooth film of uniform thickness before hardening.

flute: A deep channel cut in wood- usually with a semi-circular bottom.

force drying: The acceleration of drying by increasing the ambient temperature.

free water: Water found in the cell cavities of wood- compare to bound water.

French polish: A mixture of shellac and alcohol rubbed on with a cloth pad, usually to a high sheen.

fuming: A technique for enriching the color of wood, particularly white oak. The wood to be treated is left in a chamber with an open container of ammonia solution for a day to weeks. The ammonia reacts with the tannin in the wood and darkens the color.

fungus: The taxonomic kingdom fungi includes yeasts, molds, mildews and many thousands of mushroom species. Mold and mildew cause stains and decay in wood.

fuzzy: Wood surface that has loose, frayed fibers instead of clean cut ones. Can occur when machining wood with high moisture content, dull tooling, wild grain.