Glossary

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PAD- partially air dried: Lumber that has been stickered and allowed to air dry but has a moisture content above 19%.

paint: A liquid compound composed of a mixture of pigment suspended in a liquid that is applied in a thin layer or multiple layers to a surface and subsequently dries into a hard, opaque, solid coating that protects and adds color to the object or surface to whi

paint grade: Fine grain woods that are free of knots, but will have mixed heartwood and sapwood in the face of the boards. Example: Poplar, Brown Soft Maple, Natural Birch.

pale: Not dark, lacking color intensity.

paper marking: Furniture and other finished products are often wrapped in paper for shipment. When the paper sticks to the finish in transit or leaves a mark in the finish, the article is said to be paper marked.

parenchyma: Tree cells that perform non-structural life process functions such as food storage and production of resins, gums, extractives and tylosies. May be axial parenchyma-vertical strands, or horizontal ray parenchyma.

parquet: A non-linear, geometric, patterned floor.

parquet floor square: Basically a “tile” composed of individual slats held in place by a mechanical fastening. A square may or may not possess tongues and grooves to interlock and is not necessarily “square” or regular in dimension.

paste filler: Ground inert solids specifically designed to fill pores or small cavities in wood as one step in the overall finishing process in order to advance the final build and smoothness of the finish.

patina: The color and texture that a material acquires on the surface as a result of a natural aging process Due to surface oxidation or exposure to sunlight (UV).

patterned floor: A non- linear floor.

pebbling: Similar to “orange peel” a roughened surface after spraying due to lack of flowing properties.

pecky: Pockets of disintegrated wood caused by localized decay, or wood area with color change related to localized injury such as bird peck. Pecky is sometimes considered a decorative effect, such as pecky cypress.

penetrating dyes: Deep color, fast drying stains often carried in solvents as a liquid or gel. Some water soluble versions are available.

penetrating finish: A finishing agent that is absorbed into the surface rather than forming a film. Tung oil, linseed oil and Danish oil.

penetrating oil: An oil based material designed to penetrate into the wood rather than form a film. It usually requires reapplication from time to time.

penetrating oil stains: Almost always a thin liquid mixture of oil and thinner with dye added for color.

percent solids: Percentage mass of non-liquid components in finishing agents.

PET: Precision end trimmed.

PH: A measure of the alkalinity or acidity of a solution. A value of seven is neutral, low numbers are acid, high numbers are alkaline. Strictly speaking, PH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

phloem: The live inner bark of the tree, through which sap flows down to the trunk.

photo-sensitive: The property of some wood species, which cause them to lighten or darken when exposed to light.

photosynthesis: The metabolic process in trees in which leaves convert water and carbon dioxide from the air into organic compounds using the energy from sunlight.

picking up: The softening and raising of underneath coatings by the solvent action of coatings applied over them.

pickling: A white or light colored pigment in either an oil or water vehicle. When wiped or brushed onto an open pore wood, the white stays in the pores and is usually wiped off the surface, either entirely or partially depending on the desired effect. Similar to a

picture framing (halo): Edges of room appear to be slightly different color from rest of room. Caused by improper grit sequence when sanding leaving edges either smoother or rougher than the center of the floor. Finish/Stain absorbs differently.

pigment: Fine ground particles (solids) usually titanium dioxide, provide hiding power, color, gloss, sand ability and sealing properties.

pigmented oil stain: Almost always an oil based liquid with pigments (not dyes) added.

pin holing: A defect caused by rapid solvent loss which creates tiny holes in the finish that penetrate to the underlying surface. Pinholes may or may not have raised edges.

pin knot: A small knot usually ¼ or ½” or less in diameter.

pin worn hole: In hardwood flooring, a small hole not more than 1/16” in diameter, made by a small wood boring insect.

pitch: Generally refers to resin- pine.

pitch pocket: An opening extending parallel to the annual growth rings containing resin. This is a defect and only occurs in softwoods that have resin canals.

pith: The small soft core occurring near the center of the tree trunk, branch, twig or log.

plain sawn: Most common and least expensive method of sawing. First saw cut is made on a tangent to the circumference and all cuts are parallel to the first. This provides widest boards and least waste. Most lumber produced is flat grained, with some vertical grained

plane: The process of removing material in thin shavings in order to make it flat.

planer: Is a stationary power tool with a long rotary cutting head mounted over and/or under a bed through which a rough cut plank is fed through the knives and is smoothed down by removing material from the thickness of the board to produce a flat, even surface

planer bite: The deeper than intended groove cut into the surface of a piece of wood by planer knives.

plank: Solid boards, usually ¾” thick and 3 to 8” wide designed to be installed in parallel rows. Flooring either solid or engineered that is manufactured to be installed either a sole width, random width, or equal linear pattern.

plasticity: Describes the ability of wood to return to it’s original shape after being deformed- usually by bending.

plasticizer migration: Movement of plasticizer in a coating or plastic to the surface or into an adjacent material such as an undercoat or substrate.

plough: A dado cut made along the grain to receive the edge or end thickness of another member to create a joint. A plough along the edge is also called an edge rabbet.

plugs: Square, round or butterfly inserts that are sometimes used to cover countersunk screws when installing plank, but may be used for purely decorative purposes.

plywood: A flat piece of construction material that is made up of three or more layers of wood and bonded with adhesive. Typically manufactured in sheets 4 x 8’.

polish: A finishing agent that provides a hard , smooth surface on an object, sometimes an top of another finishing agent.

poly vinyl chloride-PVC: A tough white plastic used in plumbing. Also a plastic foam board used for exterior trim.

polyester: A very high-solids- content coating consisting of two components that require special care in handling and spraying. Leaves a deep, wet looking, clear or colored finish. Limited reparability.

polyurethane: Usually a two component system that may have higher solids content than lacquer. Takes somewhat longer to dry than lacquer. A highly durable finish, which as a result is difficult to repair.

pop: A term used to describe the extreme way that wood figure will be caused to stand out strongly when a finishing agent is applied.

popping: A paint defect characterized by raised bumps in the surface. Caused by solvent vapor forming within the paint after it has begun to skim over. The resulting vapor pressure raises the paint surface at its weaker spots.

pore: The cross section of a hardwood vessel.

porosity: Presence of numerous minute voids in the cured material.

pot life: The useful life of a finish after mixing. Usually refers to finishes which are mixed with a curing agent just before application. Pot life may vary from minutes to hours depending on the chemicals involved.

pour: An application technique for putting finishing agents onto wood when a thick compound is applied such as acrylic. . May also be a precursor to other techniques like brushing.

powder post beetle: A small beetle that bores into both seasoned and unseasoned wood, leaving a small (1/16”) diameter hole in the wood. Holes are usually filled with dry crumbled wood fiber and frass.

powdering: The defect exhibited by certain short oil finishes by the formation of a powder when friction is applied, or the appearance of a powder on the film with age or due to any cause whatever.

pre-cat lacquer: Which stands for pre-catalyzed lacquer, is a lacquer that the catalyst is added to at the factory. The dry time is typically slower then post-catalyzed lacquers because the catalyst is not as powerful. There are also blocker solvents in pre-cat lacquer

precision end trimmed- PET: Lumber that has been precisely trimmed smooth on both ends.

prefinished: Wood product, the surface of which has been treated at the factory where it was produced, so that no sanding or finishing is required upon installation - A completely finished flooring that requires installation only.

preservative: A chemical that prevents decay in wood caused by fungi, excessive moisture, or insects. May be applied by dipping, brushing or pressure treatment.

primary colors: Three basic colors are red, yellow and blue. They are called primary because they cannot be produced by other colors, but can be used to create any other color.

primer: A specialized coating that provides a good bonding surface between the raw wood and the topcoat.

printing: The impression left in a film of dried finishing material after pressure has been removed.

progressive kiln: A dry kiln in which the lumber is not dried as a single unit but as several units the move progressively through the kiln.

puckering: The crinkling, shriveling, or wrinkling of a coat of finishing material upon drying.

puddling: the application of excessive heavy uneven coats of finishing material

pull outs: Small holes that are caused by rubbing dirt nibs or other defect out of a dried film of finishing material.

punky: A condition in wood in which it is very soft, light and with low density. Can be a natural condition of the wood or rot.