Glossary

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S2S (Surface two sides): Planed on two faces, edges are rough.

S4S (Surface-4-Sides): Machined on all four sides.

saddle: A flat moulding with beveled or rounded edges designed to transition between two surfaces of the same height. Often used to cover expansion at doorways and typically attached to the surface of the flooring product.

sags: Irregularity of film thickness due to uneven flow.

sanding sealer: A specially formulated very hard finishing agent that is the first finishing coat applied to wood. The purpose is to seal and fill and be sanded before subsequent finishing coats are applied.

sandpaper: A tool consisting of an abrasive grit bonded to a backing. Can use grit materials from flint, garnet, aluminum oxide, r silicon carbide. Grit sizes are based on material passing through screens with x# holes per square inch. An 80grit will pass through a

sap: The mineral and nutrient bearing liquid that flows down the tree in the phloem from the leaves into the cambium to feed tree growth.

sap no defect:

sapwood: The sapwood carries water The living wood between the heartwood and the bark. Usually lighter in color than heartwood.

saw kerf: See kerf.

sawmill: A facility where logs are converted into lumber.

scalding: A term used to describe the cobwebby appearance of varnish when the topcoat has been rubbed through, showing the next coat of varnish underneath. The term also describes an aggravated form of flaking in which large pieces of the dried finishing material c

scratches: Slight incisions, breaks, tears or indentations on the surface caused by abrasive friction.

screeds/ sleepers: Usually a 2x 4 laid flat side down and attached to a concrete subfloor to provide a nailing surface for tongue and groove strip flooring or a wood subfloor.

scuff sanding: Sanding a finished surface very lightly in order to remove the shine or the roughness of the surface before applying the next coat.

sealers: Compounds that provide a sandable coating and a smooth surface for final topcoat application, provide system toughness and hold out, provide moisture resistance and contribute to build and clarity.

seasoned: Wood that has been dried by air or in a kiln to remove moisture so as to improve serviceability.

secondary colors: Any of the three colors formed by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors.

seeding: The formation of grains of undissolved resins in a varnish or lacquer or the formation of pigment aggregates from small individual particles in paint caused by severe chilling or improper thinners.

Sel: An abbreviation for the grade of select.

select: In hardwoods- one grade below FAS; in flooring- minimal occurrence of knots and mineral streaks but allows sapwood.

selected sizes: Wood that is ordered to specific widths, lengths or other specifications. Will cost more per board foot for selection, but will minimize waste and rejects and labor.

separation: The breaking up or segregation of two or more integral parts of a mixture into its component parts. In a varnish this may take the form of the resin, becoming insoluble in the other ingredients: in a paint or enamel, it may mean that a clear liquid portio

set to touch: The initial stage of drying when sufficient solvents have evaporated to allow the film to harden to where it can be touched lightly without adhering to the finger.

setting-up time: The time required for the initial stage of drying of a finishing material, whereby it has lost its ability to flow, but is still soft and plastic.

settling: The separation of a pigment or other solid ingredient from a coating material upon standing.

shading: A technique that can be used to either highlight contrast or create a more uniform appearance.

shake: Separation or weakness in wood fiber between or through annual rings. Not to be confused with checks or raised grain.

sheathing: The structural covering, usually sheets of plywood, placed over exterior studding, or rafters or subfloor of a structure.

sheen: Same as gloss.

shelf life: The period of time in which a material may normally be stored and still be in usable condition.

shellac: A wood finish extracted from a secretion of an Asian insect – the lac bug-sold as dry flakes which are then dissolved on denatured alcohol., fast drying and usually waxed for additional protection.

shellout/dishing: Of springwood- uneven wear between segments of annual rings.

shrinkage: The reduction in dimension or volume which takes place in timber when it is dried out, expressed as a percentage of the original dimensions or volume in a green piece. Shrinkage occurs in three directions: radial, tangential and longitudinal.

siding: The final layer applied to the outside of a structure.

silica: Sand inside the tree- tree takes silica from the soil and combines with oxygen to form silicon dioxide- dulling effect on tooling.

sill: The bottom of a window frame, the non- structural member at the bottom of a doorframe, the lowest horizontal member of the structural framework.

sinking in: A finishing material is said to sink in when a considerable amount of it is absorbed by the underneath surface.

slip tongue/ spline: A spline or small strip of wood used to reverse or change direction in installing standard tongue and groove flooring, or when making and assembling parquet flooring.

slot: A rectangular groove in wood.

SLR1E: Straight line ripped one edge to give one true glue edge.

SLR2E: Straight line ripped two edges, may not be perfectly parallel.

smoky: A finish is smoky when it has a cloudy look and is not bright, transparent and high in gloss.

SND: Sap no defect.

Soffit: The underside of the eaves running the length of the side of a house and from the wall to the fascia.

soft settling: Material will go back into solution with minimum agitation or stirring.

softwood: General term used to describe non-porous lumber produced from needle and or cone bearing trees (Conifer) regardless of hardness of wood.

soluble: Capable of being dissolved in a liquid.

solvent: A substance in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution. Finish solvents include paint and lacquer thinner, mineral spirits, gum turpentine, and denatured alcohol. Carries paint to the surface and then evaporates, leaving the film behind.

solvent blend: A blend of solvents to produce the desired properties of solvency and solvent evaporation.

sound cutting: A section that is free from rot, pith, shake, and wane. It will admit sound knots, bird pecks, stain, and pin holes.

sound knot: A knot that is solid across the surface, at least as hard as the surrounding wood, and shows no indication of decay.

sound wood: Wood that will create a useable floor and therefore not including soft wood due to rot, loose pieces that will fall out or splits throughout the piece.

southern: Lumber logged from a region that includes eastern Oklahoma, Eastern Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Western Kentucky, Western Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Eastern Virginia.

spalling: The chipping, fragmenting, or separation of a surface or surface coating.

spalted: Dead wood that has undergone a form of decay that looks like black ink lines of varying thickness and great variety.

split: Separations of wood fiber running parallel to the grain.

spontaneous combustion: The condition under which a chemical compound creates enough heat due to internal reactions that it will burst into flames with no external source of ignition.

spray: An application technique for putting a finishing agent or adhesive onto a wood surface.

spring angle: The angle measured outward from a wall to the back of a piece of crown moulding that is properly fitted to a wall.

spring wood: Inner part of annual ring, formed first. Characterized by cells having relatively large cavities and thin walls. Less dense than summer wood.

square edge: A flooring that is NOT tongue and grooved. Square edged strip flooring is face nailed when installed.

square footage: A unit of measurement to determine the total amount of flooring required for a given area. Calculate by multiplying the length times the width of the space.

square joint: Tongue & Grooved strip or plank flooring that are not eased or beveled.

squares: Parquet flooring units, usually composed of an equal number of slats.

squeeze out: The small bead of adhesive or individual drops of adhesive, pushed out of a joint under clamping pressure.

stable: Refers to wood that has been dried to equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere and which can be expected to not move unless there is significant change in atmospheric moisture content.

stain: A discoloration in or on flooring of any color other than the natural color of the species. For instance blue stain or brown stain.

stain bleed through: When tannins found in certain types of wood such as oak, cedar, migrates through the finishing agent causing discoloration.

stair stringer: This is an inclined member that supports the treads of a stair. The one on the open side of a staircase is an outer stringer, the one against the wall is a wall stringer.

stairs: A unit of steps from one floor of a building to another. The stairs and their support structure are called the staircase and the opening in the floor is called a stairwell.

standard lacquer: A nitrocellulose based coating, usually without any additives, that dries when by solvent evaporation. Generally easy to repair.

standing bead: A bead which is wholly raised above the surrounding wood.

star checked knot: A knot having radial checks from its center outwards.

star shake: A type of wood shake which consists of a group of splits running outward from the pith also called heart shake.

starved joint: A joint that is poorly bonded because not enough glue was applied.

steamed: A process (caramelization) in which certain woods (primarily walnut) are steamed in vats for the purpose of darkening the light colored sapwood to blend with the dark colored heartwood.

sticker: A narrow strip of wood that is used to separate planks that are drying so as to allow airflow. Typical 1” wide x ¾ thick. Usually placed 12 to 18” apart and placed directly over any support blocks.

sticker stain: Light brown marks that appear on the wood flooring surface across the width of the strip, measure ¾ to 1” wide and occur every 12 to 24” across the face of the floor. Caused by stacking sticks on rough lumber during air/kiln drying. Sticker stain allowe

sticker stripe: A strip of wood that has a slightly different color than the surrounding area of the board because that portion was covered from air and light by a drying sticker whereas the surrounding wood was not. Sticker stripe can be lighter or darker. Not the same

sticking: The pattern machined on the inside edge of rails and stiles. It covers the panels and holds them in place.

stiles: The outside vertical pieces of a door frame, with stile sticking machined on each edge. Each door frame will have one left stile and one right stile.

story stick: A way to accurately move dimensions from a template to a work piece. This is normally a flat thin piece of wood on which is marked various points at which a work piece needs to be worked in some way.

straight line rip: Produces a perfectly straight edge ready for gluing.

streaks, mineral: Natural discoloration in wood due to its constituents.

stress: Force per unit area. Measured in ponds per square inch.(PSI)

striking in: The defect produced by a coat of finishing material softening and partially penetrating an underneath coating.

strip flooring: Solid boards or engineered boards to be installed in parallel rows now produced in thicknesses of ½”, ¾” and 33/32” and these widths 1-1/2”, 2”, 2-1/4” and occasionally 3-1/4”. These strips are t & G and end matched. They are for nail down installation di

stripping: Removing old paint or other finishing agents by using a chemical paint remover, solvent, sandpaper, heat gun, scraping tools or a combination.

subflooring: A layer of plywood which rests on floor joists. Sometimes there will be a layer of underlayment over the subflooring and beneath the finished floor.

substrate: Any surface to which a coating is applied.

summer wood: Outer part of annual ring formed later in the growing season, characterized by cells with smaller cavities and thicker walls. More dense than spring wood.

surface: The outside or exterior boundary of any substance. One is said to surface the work when it is rubbed or sanded to a smooth, level plane.

surface check: A check that occurs on the wood surface as a drying defect and will extend to varying depths into the wood.

surface drying: When a coating dries on top but remains relatively soft on the bottom, it is said to surface dry.

surface planer: See planer.

surface preparation: Any activity used to prepare a surface for finishing. This includes cleaning, grain raising, sanding, filling and priming.

suspension: A liquid that contains particulate matter that is not dissolved, but just spread throughout the liquid.

sweating: When a coating becomes more or less glossy again after being dull rubbed, it is said to sweat. Usually it is caused by rubbing the coating before it is sufficiently dry